Utanka and Asoka-pillar

V. Krishnakumar

The story of Utanka found in Mahabharata p.121-2 [2] has some similarity with the symbols found in the Asokan pillars.

Utanka had gone to the netherworld to obtain a pair of ear-rings for his master’s wife. In the netherworld Utanka saw the following:
(1) Two women at a loom weaving a piece of cloth with black and white threads said to represent night and day.
(2) A wheel, with twelve spokes, twenty-four divisions representing ‘as many lunar changes’, and furnished with three hundred spokes. The wheel was set in continual motion by six boys representing the seasons.
(3) A man wearing a black cloth who distinguished truth from untruth.
(4) While retuning he saw a horse of extraordinary size and a bull. The horse that Utanka saw was Agni, the god of fire and the bull was Airavata.

The Asokan pillar has the following features in common with what Utanka saw in the netherworld:
(1) The wheel on the pillar, which is called Dharma Chakra, has twenty-four spokes.
(2) A bull on one side of the Chakra and a horse on the other side of the Chakra.

The trio of Wheel/Dharma-Bull-Horse:
We can see a signature that is common to Utanka’s story and Asoka’s pillar. This signature has the following three components:
(1) Netherworld is known to be the abode of the dead with Yama being it’s Lord in Hindu mythology. Yama is associated with time and Dharma. The man whom Utanka saw was also associated with ‘distinguishing truth from untruth’, a qualifier for Yama. Thus we see a Wheel and Dharma associated with Utanka’s journey. The Chakra of Asoka is also associated with time (the twenty-four spokes) and Dharma.
(2) Utanka encountered a bull on his way; the Asoka pillar has a bull depicted next to the Chakra.
(3) Utanka also encountered a horse on his way; the Asoka pillar has a horse depicted next to the Chakra.

Thus it is possible that the trio of Wheel representing time and Dharma, with a bull and a horse constitute a signature that might have been carried from the Mahabharata time.

What might the bull and horse stand for? We have already compared Yama and Osiris, as the Lords of the netherworld in the respective civilisations of India and Egypt. Can that throw more light on these two animal symbols? Osiris is represented by bull and Seth is associated with horse. The Egyptians believed the world to be ‘a balance between order and chaos’, where Osiris represented order and Seth represented chaos [1,3]. Egyptians believed that this balance was very essential for existence [1,3]. Thus the trio of Wheel-Horse-Bull are more closely connected in more than one civilisation.
Bibliography:

[1] Richard H Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt, Thames and Hudson, London, 2003

[2] The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1999

[3] Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Gods of the Egyptians Volume 1 of 2. New York: Dover Publications, 1969 (original in 1904)

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Temples, their structure, rituals and practices

V. Krishnakumar

The concept of temple, worship and rituals are the topic of this section. The Egyptian and the South Indian temples have some similarity in their structure, mode of worship and rituals. Some of the similarities can be dismissed as “natural”, for example the concept of placing the idol of a god at the center of the temple or the presence of a tower over the sanctum, etc. However, there are other similarities that deserve serious consideration, especially in view of the similarities of gods and the epic Mahabharata discussed in our earlier articles.

Temple structure

The picture of an Egyptian temple on p.27 in [1] gives almost a feel of a South Indian temple. In this picture, one finds a row of pillars on either side of a central passageway leading to the sanctum which houses the main idol of the god. There are paintings on the roof; the side pillars have idols carved on them. Several South Indian temples have very similar structure, eg: Kudumiyanmalai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Egyptian temples according to [1], were not just built for the worship of the gods but were representations of the entire cosmos. They were the houses of gods where the gods were cared and looked after. The temple representing the cosmos is very similar to the Hindu concept of temple. The South Indian temples are called ‘Devasthana’, meaning ‘the abode of the gods’.

The Egyptian temples are built in such a fashion as to exclude the mundane life with its chaos and unrest. The outer walls of the temple were sacred, and they depicted the day to day life of the Egyptian society in the universe of chaos, see picture on the top left on p.43 in [1]. This can be seen in many of the Indian temples, where the outer walls have scenes from everyday life apart from divinities; for example: the Hoysala temples, Khajuraho temples; in particular the amorous scenes in the latter. The belief here is the inside of the temple is secluded and away from these mundane interventions. Also many of the Indian temples have secluded and isolated sanctums, which are enclosed by massive walls.

The Egyptian temples had large axial procession ways leading to their sanctum, which indicated the path of the sun [1]. A good number of Hindu temples have East-West orientation and indicate the path of the sun. The axial procession ways are exceptionally long and massive in some of the South Indian temples; for example: Thiruvidamarudur, Tamil Nadu, India.

The inner sanctum of Egyptian temples is very dark [2]. This is true with most of the ancient Indian temples.

The picture of the Egyptian god Horus (Heru) as a divine child on p.129 in [3] shows him standing at the center with animals in his hands. What is striking is the arch around him with a grotesque face at the center of the arch above his head interpreted as the mask of Bes. The arch with the grotesque face resembles the ‘Prabhavali’, the arch that is placed above the Hindu gods in almost all the temple sanctums. It may be noted that Bes has a leonine mane and origin according to [1], while the grotesque face in the ‘Prabhavali’ is leonine; we have mapped Bes to Lord Narasimha in an earlier article. 

Egyptian temples had hearing ear shrines in the outer walls, where common man could communicate with god [1]. In South Indian temples people whisper in the ears of Nandi (the bull mount of Shiva), in order to communicate with god; Nandi is placed just outside and facing the sanctum.

Images of the kings are found at the entrance or within the temple in Egypt [1]. This is the case with many of the temples built by Vijayanagara, Nayaka and Chola rulers in India.

There is an anthropomorphized pillar in front of Egyptian shrines, besides which animals and food were laid out on a table as an offering to god [4]. In South Indian temples there is a pedestal called ‘Bali peetham’, where offerings of food and animals are made to the god. This is typically found just beside a tall pillar called the Garudagambha.

The decorations of the Egyptian columns often represent a bundle of reeds tied up with a cord on the top [5]. This resembles the Darbha or grass tied to the Dwaja-stambha in the Kerala temples.

Typically the South Indian temples have the following structure: there is a pyramidal tower called Gopuram that marks the front gate and the main temple with sanctum containing the idols of the gods at variable distance from this gate with an axial procession way leading to it. At times there are more gates in different directions apart from the front gate. This may resemble the mortuary temple associated with pyramid in Egypt. The front arch of the Tanjavur Chola temple, India is trapezoidal as is the pylon, which is built in front of temples in Egypt.

Stele versus Shasana: The layout of the Egyptian stele is very similar to the Shasanas found in temples: see the picture of the Egyptian stele on p.38 in [1]. The following features are common:

  • A convex semi-circular top.
  • This convex portion has gods, divinities and humans.
  • Below these figures is the text.
  • They have some pictorial representations at the bottom.

God: Iconography and description

The image of god was said to house his spirit or represented the deity and hence was treated to be alive in Egypt [1]. The belief is quite similar in India; when the people address the image as “he” or “she” rather than “it”; for example people say “Lord is coming” when the idol is brought in a procession.

Symbols of god: The Egyptians write the names of the gods in several ways [1]. There are four hieroglyphic signs for god [1]. These symbols have somewhat comparable counterparts in India; they either represent the god or his posture, or they are divine symbols associated with him.

  1. One is a human figure in sitting posture shown from the side [1]. The posture looks quite similar to that of Lord Ayyappa and Lord Yoga Narasimha.
  2. The second hieroglyphic sign is a falcon on a perch [1]. In India we see a Garudagambha in front of the temple, at times with the image of the bird god, Garuda seated on top of the pillar; for example the Vishnu temple in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India.
  3. The third hieroglyphic representation is a flag [1]. We have four Indian counterparts: small flags are placed on the ‘Prabhavali’ or the arch around the god. Similar flags are carried in the processions of gods. Thirdly in front of the temple a pillar called ‘Dwaja-stambha’, meaning flag post, is erected permanently. This flag post is made of metal at the top and has some features of the Egyptian Dzed pillar as well.  Some of the saints namely Sri Ramanuja carry a flag in their hands.
  4. Fourth hieroglyphic representation is a star [1]. Certain divine personalities are mapped to stars in Hindu mythology, but they may not be gods themselves.

In Egyptian the word ‘Netcher’ means god; it is used at the end of a deity’s name [1]. In South India ‘Natchiar’ is the suffix of female deities of temples while the suffix ‘Nathar’ is used for male deities in India.

According to the Egyptians [1] the skin of the gods is of gold and hence the idols are made of precious metals. Lakshmi [6] and Garuda are of gold complexion. Every South Indian temple has a metal idol of the god, made of precious metals for processional purpose. The idols of the gods in the sanctum are made of stone and covered with metal sheaths of gold or silver and their eyes and eyebrows are made of Semi-precious or precious stones. The Hindu lunar deity Chandra is made of Silver.

According to [7] the forces embodied by Seth become vehicles of gods in Egypt; also Seth is made to carry Osiris at the end of the latter’s life; Seth was represented by a boat. Many Hindu gods have animal mounts; also as part of temple rituals gods are carried on animal mounts and boat (Teppotsavam) during processions and festivals.

Practices and rituals

Several of the Egyptian practices and rituals at the temples resemble those in India especially the ones in South India; and they are as follows:

In Egypt, the images were taken out of their shrines everyday, bathed, dressed with clean clothes, decorated with jeweled ornaments, incensed and were offered food and drinks like wine, milk and water and then returned to their shrines [1]. In the South Indian temples, idols are ritually bathed, dressed, ornamented and incensed everyday and are offered food and drink like water, milk, coconut water and even wine; for example in the Kala Bhairava temple of Ujjain, where the deity is offered wine. The main stone idol of the sanctum is not carried out but a dedicated metal image is taken on a procession on a regular basis. However in one of the temples of Tamil Nadu, India, at Nachiyar Koil, a stone image of Garuda is taken on procession, while in Chidambaram, the bronze image of Nataraja is both the image of the sanctum and the processional idol.

The gods were carried to other shrines within the same complex or outside to other shrines on portable barques during festivals in Egypt [1]. This resembles the ‘Utsavas’ or processions conducted on festivals or important days of a year in the Indian temples, during which gods are carried on portable palanquins or barques to shrines within the same temple complex or to other shrines.

The picture of a Egyptian procession on p.45 in [1] shows some more points of similarity:

  • The dress of the bearers of the barque: both wear a ‘Vaeshti’, a long white cloth wrapped around the waist which extends to the ankle fastened with a strip of cloth tied to the waist
  • Both carry umbrellas above the god
  • King leads the procession way; this is quite similar to Puri Jagannath Ratha Yathra in India

In Egypt, people could approach the god only during festivals [1]. They had to see the procession of the god from a distance and most often the god would not be clearly visible to them [1]. Indian temples have processions called ‘Utsavas’, during which the god is taken out of the temple, during this common people can witness the procession from a distance and typically the god is not clearly visible to them.

The list of festivals and offerings to be made on a specific day for a particular god were written in the temples in Egypt [1]. This is a common procedure in Indian temples as well.

Before praying to Amun, devotees were expected to cleanse and purify themselves in the river, put on clean linen garments and kiss the ground in front of the temple [2]. In South Indian temples people bathe in the river or the sacred tank of the temple, wear clean garments and prostrate with their head touching the ground in front of the temple.

In Egypt god is given offerings of food, drink, flowers, trinkets, carved and painted statues and votive stele [1]. Once the gods had finished with the food, it was distributed among the people [2]. In India clothes, flowers, trinkets, food and drink are offered to the gods; food is placed before the god and once the gods have finished with it, it is distributed among the people. Cradles with Lord Krishna as a child are offered to the god for fertility.

Offerings such as foodstuffs are placed before the deities; the deities only consume the ‘ka’ of the food or its vitality. After the gods have enjoyed this, the food can be eaten by the priests and is also distributed among the common people [8]. This closely resembles the South Indian practice of ‘Amshi’, in which the ‘Amsha’ or only the essence is consumed by the gods.  Once this is done the offering is distributed first among the priests and then to everyone.

The picture in the bottom right on p.43 in [1], shows an Egyptian king offering incense; this resembles closely the practice of ‘Aarathi’ in Indian temples but done with the right arm.

Pilgrims who came to Saqqara to worship Osiris, sought advice in various issues, success in court cases, cures for diseases and knowledge of the future [2]. When the desired result occurred they would give offerings to the god as a token of thankfulness [2]. There are similar practices in Indian temples as well.

Horusstatues were purchased and donated in Egypt [2]. This is very similar to the South Indian practice of buying idols of snake or Lord Krishna and donating it to temples. These idols are placed at the base of a Banyan tree. Recall that we mapped Horus to Lord Krishna in an earlier article where several interesting points are brought into light.

  • At Buto, Horus was believed to be the son of the snake goddess Wadjet, hence we mapped him to snake.
  • We have compared the tamarisk tree in which Osiris was caught to the Banyan tree that is worshipped in India.
  • The Djed pillar believed to represent a tree, associated with Osiris buried in the tamarisk, was a symbol of resurrection.
  • Osiris was the god for fertility.

Quite similarly, banyan tree in India is the symbol of rebirth and eternal cycles of life; further banyan tree is the symbol of fertility; and it is associated with Lord Krishna and snake. Note that the seemingly diverse facts such as rebirth, fertility, snake worship and Lord Krishna will find the common thread once the story is traced back to its Egyptian origins.

Votive pieces were given to gods by kings, nobles and priests in Egypt [1]. Votive stele with texts requesting god’s favor, were also offered to the gods [1]. In Indian temples, people offer gods votive pieces, such as articles of worship or metal sheets containing the request symbolically; for example, the picture of a limb, of eyes or ears on a sheet of silver is offered to heal the disease in the respective organs.

The kings give cartouches to the god in Egypt [1]. This practice is similar to ‘Archana’ found in South Indian temples. In this practice, the names, Gotra or lineage and the birth star of a senior member of the family is told to the priest, who will worship the deity in his name. Also people who do ‘Archana’ are given a higher position or are viewed as noble in the society.

The kings donating gifts to temples were recorded in the depictions on the temple walls in Egypt [1]. The Hindu temple ‘Shasanas’ record the same.

In Egypt certain gods were believed to answer questions and predict oracles [1].

In several Indian temples there is a belief that gods answer questions and predict future.

The temple precincts were full of fortune Tellers, dream interpreters, astrologers, sooth Sayers and people who gave magical amulets [2]. Monkeys were sold, and typically cheaper ones were replaced by the expensive and rarer ones [2]. Some of the popular Indian temples are thronged by astrologers, fortune tellers and people involved in occult sciences. Duplicate or fake objects of religious interest were also sold in the Indian temples.

The festival of ‘raising of the djed’ at Denderah, Edfu, Busiris, Memphis and Philae and greatest at Abydos, all in Egypt involved the following ceremonies: the myth of Osiris and Isis was re-enacted. The re-enactment involved Seth tricking Osiris and killing him, Isis searching for him, Osiris’ mummification, funeral and ultimately his resurrection. At Abydos, the re-enactments were accompanied by hundreds of priests and priestesses playing the parts of gods and goddesses, and thirty four papyrus boats carrying gods, an image of Osiris in an elaborate chest, lamps and incense [9]. In the Draupadi Cult festivals, the penance tree of Arjuna which closely resembles the Djed (discusses in an earlier article) is raised, and the story of the cult version of the Mahabharata is enacted. We have already shown that the cult version of the Mahabharata closely resembles the Egyptian Osiris story. These enactments are accompanied by processions of gods. In these processions gods are taken in elaborately decorated palanquins with lamps and incense. Also the priests (called ‘Paratiars’) sing songs, which describe the happenings of the Mahabharata.

Priests

All the rituals in the Egyptian temples were performed by the priests [1]. In South India (unlike the North Indian temples in general), only the priests are allowed to worship and touch the god and they alone can perform the rituals as in Egypt.

Priests of Sekhmet temples were well versed in magic and medicine and performed rituals, which involved magic, which was believed to be mysterious in nature [1]. Priests of Kali temples practice magic, provide amulets for cure and are frequented by people during epidemics.

Some of the rituals were performed by the Egyptian priests in private and was a secret knowledge among priests [1]. In many of the South Indian temples there are rituals, which can be witnessed and performed by the priests alone. For example the ritual of ‘the union of Minakshi with her husband Sundaresvarar’ in the temple of Madhurai, Tamil Nadu, India; the rituals in the temple of Kuram, Tamil Nadu, India; the rituals associated with the transfer of life from the old to the new idols in Puri Jagannath temple, India.

The position of the priest was hereditary and there was a large gap between the priests and common man in Egypt [1]. Common man could not participate in the formal rituals of the temple [1]. The lay people had to place their votive offerings in outer areas of the temple [1]. They could not approach or worship the deity of the sanctum themselves, but there were colossal statues outside which they could worship personally which acted as mediators to the main deity [1]. In South India the position of priests is hereditary, he alone can personally worship the deity of the sanctum and participate in the temple rituals. Also in South Indian temples, none other than the priest can enter the sanctum; devotees can place their offerings to the god only outside the sanctum and at times quite far away. The devotees are permitted to worship only large images of gods outside the temple by themselves. Some of the common images outside the sanctum personally worshipped by common people include Dakshinamurthy, Ganesha, Nandi, Parvathi, Kala Bhairava and Shiva. Also in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, people throw pieces of butter to two colossal statues of Shiva outside the sanctum. Similar colossal statues can be seen outside the sanctum in Avudiayar koil, near Pudukkottai, Tamilnadu, India.

Knowledge of the Duat in Egypt was very sacred, esoteric and was initiate material and “proven a million times” to be restricted to a very few [8]. The Hindu sacred texts are also esoteric and known only to priests.

The profession of the priests in Egypt is one of personal responsibility relative to the physical vitality (Ka) and social class [8]. This is similar to the Indian concept of priest, which is largely dependent on the religiousness and the caste of a person.

The Egyptian priests worshipped inside the temple, while the ancillary tasks like carrying the barque shrines were carried out by a different set of priests called the pure ones, who were not allowed to enter the sanctum [2]. In South Indian temples there are a special set of people designated to carry the cult images on barques, these people are not allowed to enter the sanctum, while those who worship inside the temple are a different set.

The priests who worship the god inside the sanctum are called ‘god’s servants’ in Egypt [2]. A similar concept of service to god exists in South Indian Vaishnavite temples called ‘Kainkaryam’.

In Egypt priests were buried in the vicinity of the king’s pyramid in a small pyramid of their own. However in India we heard that there is a practice of burying saints in the vicinity of the temple if he happens to die inside the temple premises; examples: saint Ramanuja’s mummified body in Srirangam, and Patanjali’s Samadhi in Rameshwaram, both in Tamil Nadu, India.

Practices outside temples

Amulets of Bes and Tawaret were worn in Egypt [1]. Amulets of Lord Narasimha are worn in South India; we have mapped Bes to Narasimha in an earlier article.

Common man in Egypt could worship in small shrines. Apart from this there were household deities, images of Bes and Tawaret kept in the niches [1]. Quite similarly, there are small shrines with images of gods, for common man to worship. Houses have niches with gods’ images, the common one being of Lord Ganesha. Interestingly, Tawaret was the concubine of Seth in Egypt [5, 87], we have mapped Seth to Lord Ganesha earlier; further Tawaret is represented as a pregnant woman with a huge belly and hippopotamus face.

The Egyptian god of male fertility is Min whom we have compared to Manmatha of  India earlier. The ‘Harvest festival of Min’ in Egypt [1] can thus be compared to the spring festival of Manmatha in India.

Pilgrimages were organized to sacred places like Abydos, where the head of Orisis was buried [8]. Hindu’s go on pilgrimage to sacred shrines.

Other significant observations

  1. When invaded by foreigners, Egyptians instead of changing their own culture, tried to Egyptianise them in the words of the author of [2]. We observe a similar theme of amalgamating with the new comers rather than giving up one’s own culture among Indians.
  2. In Egypt gods are believed to be ‘the ones who saw by their own light’ [3]. In Hinduism gods are called Swaprakaasha, meaning self-luminous.
  3. In Egypt great sages were believed to emit light eternally [3]. In Hinduism the great sages like Dhruva, Saptrishi, and Arundhati were viewed as stars or constellations.

Bibliography

[1] Richard H Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt, Thames and Hudson, London, 2003

[2] Toby Wilkinson, The rise and fall of Ancient Egypt, Bloomsbury, London, 2011

[3] Muata Ashby, The African origins of Civilization, Religion, Yoga Mysticism, and Ethics Philosophy, 2nd Edition, ISBN 1-884564-50-X, 2005

[4] Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes, Life and death in ancient Egypt : scenes from private tombs in new kingdom Thebes, p. 222

[5] J. C. Loudon, The Architectural Magazine, Volume 1 (Google eBook), Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1834

[6] Architecture of Manasara, Low price publications, New Delhi, India, 1934

[7] http://henadology.wordpress.com/theology/netjeru/

[8] http://www.maat.sofiatopia.org/osiris.htm

[9] Najovits, Simson (2004). Egypt, trunk of the tree: a modern survey of an ancient land. New York: Algora Pub p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87586-256-9

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Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 3

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves. 

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

 Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

  Page number as in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
  129 ari he who goes up aeridavaru(K), aerindavar(T) one who has climbed up or gone up  
  129 ar to come or go up to someone or something, to ascend aer(T) to climb up, to go up, to ascend  
  129 arar to go up, to rise up, to ascend aerardhu(T) to climb up, to go up, to ascend  
  130 ari light, fiery one uri(K), aeri(T)  to burn, to scorch, to irritate  
  130 ari, arri breeze, wind hAru(K)(in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  to fly airy(E)
  130 ari, arri breeze, wind Aru(KT) to cool down by wind or breeze  
  131 arb fume, flame, a burning aerippu(T), nerappu(T) flame  
    nesu   nesara sun  
  123 an to be pretty or beautiful, beauty, beautiful pleasant, delightful, gracious, splendid nanna(mT) to be good, to be nice, to be beautiful  
  123 an a man of noble qualities, a cultured man, a good man ina(K) king  
  123 an a man of noble qualities, a cultured man, a good man Anu(T) a male, a man  
  123 an a man of noble qualities, a cultured man, a good man unmai(T) truth  
  129 ar-t rush, reed, stalk of a plant, reed for writing     reed(E)
  129 ar-t a book, a roll, register, document, a writing, a laether scroll or roll, parchment, deed raddhi(K) a rough paper, a brown paper(katthe Kagada) write(E), writ(E)
  129 ar-t a book, a roll, register, document, a writing, a laether scroll or roll, parchment, deed ruttu (K) wrapper of a book  
  130 ar-t fire, flame Arathi(KT) a fire used in worship of the gods in Hindu temples and homes  
  130 ar storehouse, treasury, magazine ara-mane palace  
  130 arit an internal organ of the body(?) rattha(T) blood  
  130 arit, arrit cabin of a boat, hall of a palace ratha(KT) chariot  
  131 Arf a serpent water-god aravu(T) snake  
  131 arsh to be amazed or stupefied Akarsha amazement  
  131 arqu an educated man, a wise man, counsellor, an expert, an adept arha(K); arhanadavanu(K) qa is same as ha capable; capable man  
  131 arq a book, roll, writing baraha(K) qa is same as ha a writing worship(E)
  147 uarh a space suitable for building Uru(KT) city, town, a place worship(E)
  147 uarh a space suitable for building vihara(K)  building  
  147 uarsh to enjoy harsha(K) joy, happiness  
  147 uarsh to enjoy vihArisu(K) to enjoy oneself [207]  
  120 am fore-arm, thigh(?) amka(K) thigh [207]  
  147 uaruti the two thighs Uru(K) thigh  
  147 uarkh to be green, to become green, to flourish ukku(K) to rise, to overflow  
  148 uakh to be green, to flourish, full of blossom, blooming, flourishing ukku(K) to rise, to overflow  
  149 uash to greet, to adore, to worship, to praise, to magnify, to wish Ashu(K) to praise  
  149 uash to greet, to adore, to worship, to praise, to magnify, to wish Asha(K), Ashae(T) to wish  
  150 uatch-t green, fresh, youthful, something green patche(T) green, fresh youth(E)
  150 uatch-t “fresh meat”,i.e uncooked meat patche(T) raw, uncooked, fresh  
  147 uah to place in position vayyei(T) to place in position  
  147 uah akh to offer up a burnt offering hAku(K) (to) put (some offering into the fire)  
  148 uah-t offerings huti(K) offferings  
  148 uahit a divine offering Ahuti(K) offering to the fire, god  
  148 uakh to seek after Akankshisu(K) to desire  
  148 uas physical and mental well being, content, serenity, sound, well husharu(KT) physical and mental well being, sound, well  
  149 uasam to be in a ruined state Ushu(mT)  stale  
  149 uashesh skin disease kushta(K) leprosy  
  149 uashb-t a kind of medicine oushadhi(K) medicine  
  150 uatch to thrive, prosper, flourish uchcha(K) something high, to flourish  
  150 uaths-t what is held up, above, heaven, sky uth(K) above, something high  
  150 uat way, road haadi(K), vEdhi(T) road  
  150 uatu a kind of plant used in medicine uadu(T) to blossom  
  150 uatchut green things, growing crops, plants, herbs, vegetables, young trees chedi(T) growing crops, plants, herbs, young trees  
  150 uatch-t green stone in general patchche(K), patchchai (kallu)(T) emerald  
  152 uatchh child Kocche(M) baby daughter  
  153 uati only one, sole, the only god otthu(T), otthi(T) only one male, only one female  
  153 uati only one, sole, the only god onti(K), ottha(T) alone, single, one person  
  153 ua only one, sole, solitary, alone onti(K), ottha(T) alone, single, one person  
  153 ua-t one woman, one wife otthi(T) only one female  
  153 ua en ua one to one, i.e., one to another onnu(T) one one(K)
  153 ua en ua one to one, i.e., one to another onnE onnu or uanne uannu(T) only one  
  156 uar-t thigh Uru(KT) thigh  
  156 uan to kill, to slay Una(K), Unu(T) to hurt a body part, to dismember, to injure someone or an idol  
  151 uatch a stick, withy, twig, pillar, support, column kucchi(T) stick, twig  
  151 uatch a stick, withy, twig, pillar, support, column  kutch matte(K) a long stick used usually for dusting  
  151 uatch to violate ottchu(T) having kicked  
  151 uatch to violate odachu(T) having broken  
  152 ua mark of dual masculine ava(T), avaru(K) mark of dual masculine  
  152 ua to remove, to set aside, to withdraw (from the sum), setting aside, not counting vAngu(T) to remove, to set aside, to withdraw (from the sum), setting aside  
  152 ua to remove, to set aside, to withdraw (from the sum), setting aside, not counting vaerae (panne)(T) or vaerae(ya vaiye)(T) to remove, to set aside, to keep it separate (from the others)  
  153 uan to put aside, to shift, to depart from, to transgress vAngu(T) to put aside, to remove, to keep something away  
  153 uanf(?) to turn into worms, become maggoty hunnu(K) puss formation, to become maggoty  
  153 uanf(?) to turn into worms, become maggoty vrna(K) puss formation, to become maggoty, the wound becoming unmanageable  
  153 ua a servant of thine Aya(KT) a servant  
  153 uau a man, a person, anyone avanu(K), avu, ava(T) a man, a person, anyone  
  153 ua one, single, only one ondhu(K), onnu(T) one, single  
  153 ua with a common cry, one cried to the other O(gUdu)(K), O(pOdu)(T) to call  
  153 ua with a common cry, one cried to the other O-gUdisu(K) to sing along, to join one;s voice in calling out or shouting  
  154 ua her ua one on the top of the other uaber mele uabru(K), uther mele uatha(T) one person on the top of the other one over (the) other or one over one
  154 ua her ua one on the top of the other heru(KT) one on the top of the other, to load things on someone or something  
  153 ua-t children haida(K) boy  
  155 uab to pour out a cleansing liquid, to pour out libations abhishekha(K), abhisekhu(T) to pour out a cleansing liquid, to pour out libations  
  156 uar to come forth (of a child from the womb) heru(K), peru(T) to come forth (of a child from the womb)  
  156 uaru flight(?) hAru(K), paaru(T) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  to fly  
  156 uar-t a piece of ground, the quarter of a town     earth(E)
  157 uari to flow over or away hari(K) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  to flow  
  157 uaskhi something woven (a needle is shown in the heiroglyphs) Ushi(mT), Usi(T) needle  
  158 uba Peasant 176, servant, butler, workman, artisan upa(K) subservient, subordinate  
  158 uba rau howsoever many there may be, whatsoever Adhare(K) however  
  160 ubt to burn thaptha(K) to burn  
  161 upit the New Year festival, festival, rejoicing puthu (Andu)(T) new year festival  
  161 up-t renp-t the opening of the year, i.e, the New Year puthu (Andu)(T) new year festival  
  161 up-t renp-t the opening of the year, i.e, the New Year puthu aranbam(T) a new beginning  
  158 uba to open, to open up a country, to penetrate, to make a way into a foreign land, hence to raid, to invade, to enter     open(E)
  160 up joy, gladness     (to be) up(E)
  162 Upast Tuat I, a light-god upAsitha(K) someone being worshipped  
  162 Up-uatu Tuat I, Denderah 2, 10: (1) a singing god; (2) one of the 36 Dekans pAdu(T) to sing  
  157 uin window yannal(T)[207] window window(E)
  158 ubait servant, hand-maiden bhatta, bamtta, bhrutya, pEde (K) [208] servant  
  158 uba ab to open the heart, i.e, to confide, to speak freely bada-bada(K), vada-vada(T) to speak excessively and quickly, to speak freely and without any hesitation  
  158 uba aui to open the arms in greeting appu(K) to hug  
  159 uben to overflow, to be abundant     abundant(E)
  159 uben, uben-t wound, stripe, blow, sore abu(mT) wound  
Posted in Egypt, india, Kannada, language, Tamil | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 4

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves. 

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

 Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

  Page number as in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
  159 uben, uben-t wound, stripe, blow, sore punu(T) wound  
  163 upsh to give light, to illumine, to shine, to flood with light, star, luminary usha(KT) dawn  
  163 upsh sleep, dream nisha(KT) night night(E)
  163 ufa lung uf(KT) a word used for blowing air or to let out air  
  164 umt a dense mass of people mande(K), mandali(K) group of animals, group of people  
  164 un ye, you, they, them, their un(T) your  
  164 un ye, you, they, them, their nEnu(K), nE(T) you  
  164 un ye, you, they, them, their ung(T) their, your  
  164 un we, us nAvu(K) we  
  164 un we, us nanna (K), an(T) mine  
  164 umt-t phallus umme(K) phallus  
  164 umt girdle, belt sonta(K), mudhu(T) waist  
  164 umt girdle, belt madhya(KT) the middle portion middle(E)
  164 umt to be thick, thickness, thick, denseness, padded (of cloth), studded (of a door) mandha(K) thick  
  164 un, unn as an auxiliary verb; she said to him annu(K), ann(T) to say, tell  
  164 unun-t something that is antha(K), antu(T) like that, something like that  
  164 unn-t things which are, things which exist, what is, goods, stuff, property antha(K), antu(T) things/people that are, things/people that exist, what is, goods, stuff, property, people  
  164 unnu a living man, a human being, women, human beings, people antha(K), annu(T) things/people that are, things/people that exist, what is, goods, stuff, property, people  
  164 un, unn to be, to exist, to become, being, existence, those who are an(T) the existence of someone or something is indicated by the word “an”  
  165 unnu child, infant unni(T) child  
  165 Unun-t the name of a serpent on the royal crown anantha (KT) the name of the serpent on which Lord Ranganatha sleeps, the cosmic serpent  
    unnu men and women An(T) and Pen(T) man and woman man, woman(E)
  163 Upu filth gabbu(K) dirty, filthy, bad  
  164 un maat very truth, the absolute truth, indeed, most assuredly unmai(T) absolute truth and honesty, quality  
  164 un maat very truth, the absolute truth, indeed, most assuredly unmaiyil(T) indeed, surely, truly, most assuredly  
  165 un-t a part of the body anga(KT) a part of the body  
  165 un to do wrong, to commit a sin or a fault, defect, error, fault, mistake, offense, defective, light or worthless hina(K)(in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  something being bad or loathsome, offense  
  165 un to do wrong, to commit a sin or a fault, defect, error, fault, mistake, offense, defective, light or worthless unnu(T) not correct, not right  
  166 un to reject, to turn back, to set aside unnu(T) to reject, to turn back, to say this is not the one  
  165 unnu a man of means hana (K) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people),  pana(T) money  
  165 unnu a man of means sampanna(K)( the prefix sam is added to enrich the meaning of the word) a rich man  
  165 unnu a man of means chelvam unnu(T) rich  
  163 Upsit a fire-goddess of the first Cataract apsara (K) divine goddess  
  170 Unth a god antha(K), anthimam (T)  destination, the end  
  170 Unth a god Andi (T); andar(T) Shaiva saint; god  
  165 Unnti the name of a god, the god of existence untu(K), undu(T) (something) exists  
  165 Unnti the name of a god, the god of existence Andi(T); andar(T) Shaiva saint; god  
  167 Unti a light- god, and the god of an hour Andi(T); andar(T) Shaiva saint; god  
  165 Unta a light-god undha(K) a respectable person  
  165 un-t a part of the body undhi(T) abdomen  
  166 un, unn to run, to run away from, to move undha(T) to depart, to push out  
  166 un, unn to leap up, to rise up kuni(K) to jump or leap up  
  166 un, unn to leap up, to rise up aeni(KT) ladder  
  166 un, unn to open a mare (i.e to stab her) una(K), Unu(T) to wound or inflict an injury to someone or something  
  166 una-t journey, course undha(T) to depart, to push out  
  164 un, unn to be, to exist, to become, being, existence, those who are unmai(T) state of existing  
  166 un her to show oneself, to make oneself public, publicity, manifest, known to everyone unar(T) to know, to consider, to feel  
  166 un her to show oneself, to make oneself public, publicity, manifest, known to everyone unarvu(T) clarity of mind, soul  
  166 un her mirror unarvu(T) clarity of mind, soul  
  166 un to eat, to feed upon unnu(K); un(T) to eat; food  
  166 Unn-uiti a sacrificial priest unnathi (K) to attain a high or supreme or sacred position, to be exalted   
  167 unu-t hour, time Andu(T) year, age  
  167 Unti a light- god, and the god of an hour Andavan (T) god  
  167 unb plant, bush, shrub, undergrowth, flower An palai(T) male palmyra with no flowers  
  168 unp-t waste, ruin, destruction Apatthu(KT) destruction  
  168 unp-t waste, ruin, destruction nipaata(K) destruction  
    Unut goddess andari(T) goddess  
  168 unema to eat unisu(K), unavu(T) food  
  168 unema to eat un(KT) to eat  
  168 unem-t food amudhu(mT) elixir, food  
  169 unkh to put on garments, to dress, to array oneself, to gird oneself alankara(K) to deck up, to ornament  
  169 unkh to put on garments, to dress, to array oneself, to gird oneself ani(T) to dress  
  170 ur great man, great god, prince, chief, noble, eldest son, senior hiriya(K) elderly person, senior, head of a family or village  
  170 ur-t great thing, great, eldest nurita(K) expert  
  170 untu evil hap, calamity andha(KT) darkness – the word has an evil association  
  44 ami-at someone at the supreme moment of some emotion amaidi(T) calmness, humility, greatness  
  44 ami-ab one who is in the heart, darling, trusted one anbu(T) love, attachment, devotion amiable(E)
  44 ami-ast-a the title of a priest anchita(K) worshipped  
  44 ami-uta between, among(?) antara(K) between, inside  
  44 ami-t between, among(?)     amidst(E)
  49 am-ti graciousness amita(KT) unlimited  
  40 abhu to sprinkle, to moisten ap(K) water  
  40 abes to make to rise, to make to advance aavesha(K) onset, the coming on of, invoking of, posession, possesion of god  
  40 abes a kind of cap, headress vesha(K), veshu(T) dress up, deck up, to put on a mask or a costume  
  42 app-t pill, pellet, round cake papad(KT) a round cake or pellet  
  43 apt cup, pot battalu(K), vattalu(T) cup, bowl pot(E)
  43 apt cup, pot pathi(K) pit, a hollow pit(E)
  43 apt cup, pot pathre(K), patthiram(T) a vessel  
  56 an shall I send?, where is he today?, do you know?, shall then?, is it not?, who? aenu(K), anna(T) what?  
  56 an a mark of emphasis, an indication of a subject of a sentence anna(T) a mark of empphasis, is it not?  
  56 an a mark of emphasis, an indication of a subject of a sentence ana(T) an indication of a subject of a sentence  
  56 ann an interjection anna(T) an interjection  
  56 ani(?) to bring, to convey, bringing anmu or anpu(T) approach  
  56 an(?) to produce een(K) to deliver a child  
  56 anu porter, carrier, bringer een(T) to deliver a child  
Posted in Egypt, india, Kannada, language, Tamil | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 2

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves.

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

Page number as in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
10 asta to tremble asi(K) to tremble
10 ash, asher evening astha(K) (sun)set
10 ast ground, earth sitha(K) earth
10 ast clay, earth, chalk(?), potters clay sitha(K) earth
11 aku-t boil, blains, sores, pustules, any inflamed swelling kutthu(T) calamity
11 aku-t boil, blains, sores, pustules, any inflamed swelling kutthu(T) (a part of the body) pierced
11 aqa steps, height, a high place akhada(K) stadium, gallery
11 aqa steps, height, a high place Akasha(K) sky
11 aqem to be sad gumm(T) to be sad
12 agg-t a plant, a shrub gida(K) a plant, a shrub, a bush
12 akraut wagons gAdi(K) any vehicle, a cart, a wagon
12 ageb knee cup(E), cap(E)
12 at, atu a happy time with the women Adu(K), Ad(T) play
12 atu injury, harm Aetu(K), adi(T) injury, harm, wounded
12 at violence, wrath hodi(K), adi(T) beat, hit, violence
12 at rebel, prisoner attahasa(KT) trouble maker, a person who freaks out
12 att destitute, poor, possessing nothing attu(K) to be thrown out, to be necked out
13 at-t bed, diwan, couch, bier matthe(T) bed
13 at-t bed, diwan, couch, bier atta attic attic
13 at standard, perch, resting place of a god or divine statue adu(T) any place or region
13 atit to nurse, nurse athithi(KT) geust
13 athput burden, load hotthu(K), adathu(T) bear a load
13 atf incense, spices, sweet unguents attharu(K) perfume
13 at-t high backed, stiff-necked att-(thaku)(T) (being) high
13 ateb land, region dibba(K), dibbu(T) mound, rising ground
13 athu air, wind kAthu(T) air, wind
13 atep to load, to be laden, master of a load Dhappa(T) fat, obese
14 atu to run, flee, to make one’e escape Odu(KT) to run
14 atch calamity adch(K) something has stricken or hit
14 atcha a bad act, wickedness, guile, fraud adcha(T) (something) hit (me), (he) hit (me)
14 atcha chip of wood, splinter adcha(T) breah into pieces
14 atchait fraud, injustice, wickedness adcchindh(T) that which has been hit
15 a he who, that which A he who, that which, that
15 aa-t old woman AtthA(T) mother, mother goddess
15 aa-t old woman atthae(K) aunt aunt(E)
15 aa-t she who embraces, nurse AtthA(T) mother, mother goddess
15 au to come ba(K), va(T) come
15 Aa-t the name given to the sections of the kingdom of Osiris , the 14 Aats Adhimam(K) Lord Shiva’s monastery (curiously Shiva has 14 Jyothirlinga temples)
15 aa-t cattle aadu(KT) goat goat(E)
15 aa-t cattle atthu(K), adhuru(T) ox
15 aa-t bounds(?), limits(?) adda(K) to keep something in the way
15 aa-t bounds(?), limits(?) atanthu(T)[207] bound
16 aa boat amram(T) boat
16 aa-ti columns, two supports Adanisu(K) support, prop up
17 aau to be old, old aayu(S), aayassu(K) age, old
18 aaut old woman avva(K), avvai(T) old woman old(E)
18 aabi left, the left side, left foot, the left eye of heaven, the moon aeda(KT) left
18 aabti  left, eastern (the symbol for this word is waves) abdhi(K) sea (the symbol indicates the meaning could be sea aswell- also Egypt has sea only on its east)
19 aabb to love, to desire, to wish appu(k) to hug, to desire, to seek
19 aabb to love, to desire, to wish anbu(T) love
19 aabi to lack, to want, to come to an end, to cease, to finish aayipo(T) to get over, finished
19 aab to burn, to flare up, to burn off, to brand abbara(K) to create a scene, to raise a loud noise
19 aabekh to pierce, to penetrate, to force a way among or into, to be permeated with, mingled peck(E)
20 aapata a baked cake chaapada(T) lunch
20 aapata a baked cake chapaathi(K), sappathi(T) an Indian bread
20 aapata a baked cake pata(KT) a lamina
20 aapata a baked cake chappate(K) a flat surface
20 aapata a baked cake appala(K) papad
20 aam, aama a kind of tree, date palm(?) aamra(K)[209] mango tree mango(E)
20 aama to be pleasant, to be benevolent, to be gracious Ama(T) yes, to answer in the affirmative
20 Aamit the gracious goddess Hathor mata(KT) goddess mother, matron
21 Aamit a goddess amari(K) goddess
21 aam-t house, tent, camp, station Hamu(mT) house home(E)
21 aam-t house, tent, camp, station matha(K) sanctuary, hermitage, monastery
21 aaru forms, transformations mAru(padu)(K), mAru(T) transform
21 aaru reeds Ar(T) sharpness
21 aaru reeds ark(T) to cut
21 aaru reeds hari(K) to tear
21 aaru reeds shara(KT) reeds
21 aar lion aar(K) roar
21 aar a kind of bird hAru(K), paaru(T) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people) to fly
21 aartiar a kind of bird haartiya(K) you who flies’
21 Aarait Uraeus-goddess aravu(T) snake (typically as the suffix ‘t’ is added to denote a female in Egyptian the earlier part ‘aara’ could denote just uraeus)
22 aakhi to flourish, to burst into flower, to bloom higgu(K) to bloom, to expand, to burst out
23 Aakhu the Light-god; the Great Light i.e the sun arka(K) sun
26 aat speech(?) aadu(K) speak
26 aatha what is this? oodhu(mT) what is this?
27 aat-t ground, place, region, field, meadow aatha(T) home
27 aa, aai to wash, to bathe, to dip in water meeyu(K) to bathe
27 aatu foes, enemies aedhurei(K) enemy, opponent, foe
27 aatchn disc dashe(K) aura
27 aamiu kinsfolk amiable(people)(E)
127 ant calamity, trouble antha(K) to come to an end, destruction
127 ant destitute man anatha(K), anathe(T) orphan, destitute person
127 ansh to live, life amsha(KT) essence
126 ankh-t staff, stick, stalk onake(K) staff, stick
125 Ankhit a uraeus-goddess nAgi(KT) a female snake goddess
124 ankh “ever living”, a title of gods and kings anka(K)  a title, a name
126 ankh a god’s title anka(K)  a title, a name
126 ankh to swear an oath, to swear by the life of god, to swear by the life of pharaoh Ane, (devar)Ane, (avan)Ane to swear an oath, to swear (by the life of god), to swear (by the life of a person)
124 ankh “ever living”, a title of gods and kings anigAla(K) forever
127 ant part of a fowling net net(E)
127 ant deeds of violence nondha(K) pain, sorrow, sadness
127 ant to cut, to slay nondha(K) pain, sorrow, sadness
128 ant ground, field, soil, cultivated lands nAdu(KT) land, region, place
128 ant fat, grease, manure, unguent, fresh grease antu(KT) grease, any sticky substance, unguent
128 antch the tip of a wing anchu(K), anthu(K) the tip or edge of anything
128 antch claw, talon, nail anchu(K), anthu(K) the tip or edge of anything
128 antch light, radiance, splendour minchu(KT) shine, sparkle
Posted in Egypt, india, Kannada, language, Tamil | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 1

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves. 

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

  Page number in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
  533 khakhai Beak(?) of a bird Kaakai(T) Crow  
  533 khast Desert(?) Kashta (K) Difficulty  
  188 ut To tie, swathe, to wind bandages around a dead body Udu (K) To wrap around (a saree), wear  
  188 utaut Swathings, mummy bandages Uduvudu (udodu) (K) To wrap around, to wear  
  188 uti Destruction Odi(KT) To break, to destroy  
  188 Utanu the name of a god Odeya, Odeyanu(K) lord, master  
  188 utt To beget, to produce Utthu(K) Plough  
  189 uten To breach a wall, to bore through Ode(KT) To break  
  189 uten To be heavy, a weight Hottenu(K) Bore (a weight)  
  533 khakh re “Hasty of mouth”, a man who speaks without much thought Gaagu(mT) Stupid, thoughtless  
  152 uaa-t Vomiting, nausea Vaanthi(KT) Vomit  
  231 Paa-t a lake in the Tuat paathi(K) pit  
  332 met-t the middle of anything madhya(K) the middle of anything mid(E)
  332 met canal bank mettu(T), mEdu(T) mound, rising ground  
  661 sep to pass the time(?) (kAla-)kshEpa (K)  spending (time)  
    khara to speak angrily khAra(K) hot of tongue, (to speak) harsh  
  713 set to break, smash, cleave, breach a wall sidi(K) break in a spurt, explode  
  713 set-t breach, break, opening sidi(K) break in a spurt, explode  
  712 seth, sthi to light a fire sudu(K,T) to burn  
  644 sati slaughterer, executioner, gods who slay sati(K,T) the practice of woman sacrifice in India  
  644 sat something foul saththu(K) die  
  644 sat, saat to make weak, to reduce saththu(K) die  
  644 sati to prove, to show sattu(T) truth, essence, wisdom  
  233 papa to bring forth, to bear, give birth to, born of pApA(T), pApu(K) child  
  232 Paru a form of Ra pAru(T) see, vision  
  630 sether to be shaken, disturbed cheduru(K) disperse  
  631 set to sow seed chedi(K) plant  
  627 set earth, ground, soil sEta(K) fertile soil, ploughed soil  
  279 mata jaw bones (?) of a bull mAdu(T) cow  
  281 Mapu a title of honor(?) mAple, short form is mApu(T) a title of honor  
  285 m’kha to tie, to bind amuku(K) to press, to hug  
  419 Ruru(?) a god ruru(KT) a god  
  434 rek to kindle a fire, to burn rEgu(KT) to scold, heated conversation  
  434 reqeh flame, heat, fire reqe(K) a ray( of sun)  
  434 rekeh to be hot, to burn, to consume by fire irakkuh(mT) to feel hot (hot weather), heat  
  615 skhaa to cut, sword, knife sighaa(du haku) (K) to cut up someone ray(E)
  614 sekh event, incident sigu(K), shikku(T) to meet, intersect  
  400 neta to come, to advance neta(K) leader  
  400 nt-a rule, order, canon, custom, ordinance, statute, law, formula, stipulations,ordinances, ceremonies, the liturgy for the burial of the dead nEti(KT) rule, morals, code of conduct, law, custom   
  399 ntt-t cord, band, thread, fillet, ties, bandages, ligatures     net(E)
  399 ntt(?) to weave, to bind, to tie     net(verb)(E), knit(E)
  399 ntt that which is, this which antha(K), antu(T) that which is , this which  
  399 nti the thing which is, what is antha(K), antu(T) the thing which is, what is  
  398 nt who, which antha(K), antu(T) who, which  
  1 a-t field adu(T) region at(E)
  1 aati enemy (K) war  
  1 aati be strong, hostile aadisu(K), aadi(T) to trouble  
  1 aati be strong, hostile adi(T) to hit (someone or something)  
  2 aaia to extinguish, to put out a fire avi(T), Ari to extinguish, to put out a fire  
  2 aab-t calamity, ruin aApathu(KT) calamity, disaster  
  2 Aaanu the ape god Thoth aAAnu(T) male, alpha male  
  2 aas a weapon ishu(K) an arrow  
  2 au-t length, largeness uddah(K) length, long  
  3 au-tab swelling of the heart utha(KT) swelling  
  3 au-t food, offering, sepulcheral meals, supplies of all kinds authana(K) food  
  3 au-t slaughters, animals slaughtered for food vett(T) slaughter  
  3 Auit(?) a goddess of nurses and children aAtha(T) mother, mother goddess  
  3 au sorrow, pain, sadness nau(KT) pain, sorrow, sadness auch(E)
  4 ausha balsam, incense, unguent of a light yellow colour aushadhi(K) medicine, unguent  
  4 abebu to love, to wish for, to desire, to long for apaekshisu(K) to expect, to wish for, to desire,to long for  
  4 ab be thirsty ap(KTS) water  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk pAti(T) grandmother  
  4 abu-t kindly disposition aAptha-(mithra)(K) ideal, very close (friend)  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk aAptha-(mithra)(K) ideal, very close (friend)  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk appa(K) father  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk abachi(K) mother, father(thanthi?)  
  5 abt to shut, to bolt in podu(T) to shut, to close, to bolt in, latch  
  6 afu to injure, to inflict an injury abu(T) wound  
  6 ama, ami to mix together, to compound a medicine, to rub down drugs ammi-(kallu) (T) grinding or powdering or mixing (stone) mix(E)
  6 ames, amsu rod of authority, sceptre, staff     mace(E)
  5 af offerings of birds and fish     offering(E)
  5 af-t gift, offering, present     gift, offering(E)
  6 afit flame, fire pittha(KT) heat  
  6 afri smoke, hot vapour aAvi(T) steam  
  6 afer to burn, to be hot     burn(E)(tamil transformatn)
  7 ani to remove, to put aside ani(K) to arrange  
  7 ara to go up, to embark in a boat, to bring, to be high aeru(KT) to go up, to climb up  
  7 arar high, exalted aeridavaru(K), aernavar(T) a peson who has gone up, high, exalted  
  7 arta to be safe, sure, security artha(K) something which gives surity and security, money  
  7 an-t removal antha(K) the end  
  7 arg a member of the body anga(KT) a member of the body  
  8 ahem to advance aAgama(K) advance of (water, flood, …etc)  
  8 ahtu grief atthu(K) having cried  
  8 aha-t the offering of a field aAhuti(K) an offering usually to a god  
  8 ahnu canal Anekattu(K) dam  
  8 Akh-t the first season of the year (the season of inundation when the Nile was in flood [67]) aAgatha(K) the coming of water, inundation  
  8 Akh-t the first season of the year (the season of inundation when the Nile was in flood [67]) ukhutha(K) swelling of a liquid  
  8 ahtu weak, powerless, grief aAhAdu(T) impossible  
  8 ahtu weak, powerless, grief AhAdavu incapable, weak, powerless  
    proyet the second season of the year, springing forth [67] PrAyatha(K) springing forth  
    shomu the third season of the year, deficiency[67] kshama(K), kshamu(T) famine, drought  
  8 ah-het the pit or shaft of a tomb Hhonda(K) pit, pot-hole  
  8 akhi reed, water plant akki(K) paddy  
  9 asu to make haste, to hurry to, to flow quickly, to run, to attack, to judge hurriedly, hasting with swift feet asa(K) speed  
  9 as to be light, speedy asa(K) speed  
  9 asu birds asaga(K) birds  
  9 as old(?) as(K) debilitated  
  9 as gall, gall-duct or gall-bladder, filth Kasa(K) dirt, filth, garbage ass(E)
  9 as-ti testicles     testis
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