Egyptian origin of Mahabharata (Manuscript that was submitted to journals)

Note: This was the manuscript that I submitted to two top-end journals and got very good comments from the Referees, but the journals didn’t accept it for publication. I decided therefore to publish it in my blog, since it was more than three years back that I prepared this manuscript.

I am providing excerpts of the comments from these two Journals below. Also I am preparing a much larger and more comprehensive manuscript for a book on the same topic. This book will contain my further work in the last three years with many additional proofs and new findings in allied areas of research.

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An excerpt from the comments from the first Journal:

“Dear Professor Krishnakumar,

We appreciate the submission of your manuscript “EGYPTIAN ORIGIN OF MAHABHARATA.” Our Editors found it a solid piece of scholarship, but decided in reviewing the paper that the subject matter falls outside the concerns of History of Religions. The Editors encourage you to submit your manuscript to a more specialized journal where it will reach an audience more attuned to the paper’s specific materials and issues.

The Editors thank you for the opportunity to consider your manuscript and extend their best wishes to you in placing it in a more apposite forum.

Sincerely,

Emily D. Crews and Kenneth W. Yu
Editorial Assistants”

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An excerpt from the comments from the second Journal:

“Dear Ms. Krishnakumar,

I’m writing to you regarding manuscript # JHS-2015-008 entitled “EGYPTIAN ORIGIN OF MAHABHARATA” which you submitted to the Journal of Hindu Studies.

Thank you for submitting your article to the Journal of Hindu Studies. We have given extensive consideration to your submission. While there is much of interest here, unfortunately, our reviewers have concluded that it is not fully appropriate for the journal at this time.

Thank you for considering the Journal of Hindu Studies for the publication of your research. I hope the outcome of this specific submission will not discourage you from the submission of future manuscripts.

Sincerely,
Associate Editor, Journal of Hindu Studies”

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ABSTRACT

Mahabharata is one of the greatest epics of Hinduism. Apart from its Sanskrit version, which is commonly believed to be the original, there are several regional versions in different Indian languages. These regional versions may considerably deviate from the Sanskrit version. The regional versions are also believed to be derived from the original Sanskrit version. One such version is preserved in the Tamil language by the followers of a cult associated with goddess Draupadi. In this paper, we will show that the Sanskrit and Draupadi cult versions of Mahabharata might have originated from the Egyptian story of Osiris. Further we also show that the Draupadi cult version is closer to the Egyptian story and might be the source for the Sanskrit version, contrary to the common belief. We conclude this paper alluding to an anthropological study that supports our observations.

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS:
Sanskrit Mahabharata (SM), Cult story (CS), Egyptian story of Osiris (ES)

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION

In this paper, we compare the Indian story of Mahabharata to the Egyptian story of Osiris. We try to show that there is a natural similarity between Mahabharata and Osiris story with several key characters and events in the two stories having common signatures. We show that these similarities are beyond coincidence, thus leading one to suspect that one of them can be the source for the other.

Mahabharata has several versions in many Indian languages. Scholars believe the Sanskrit version to be the source for the regional versions,1, 2, 3, 4 though there are contrary views.5 One such version of Mahabharata is found in Tamil language, preserved by the followers of goddess Draupadi; we hereafter refer to it as the Cult story. The Cult story though similar to the Sanskrit version in its broad framework also deviates significantly in several details and in its value system. It is these differences in details and value systems that brings Cult story even more close to the Egyptian story of Osiris than the Sanskrit Mahabharata.

The similarity between Mahabharata and Osiris story with a more intense proximity of the Cult story to the latter leads us to the following major claims of this paper:
Claim 1: The Sanskrit Mahabharata and the Cult story are similar to the Osiris story of Egypt.
Claim 2: The Cult story lies between the Osiris story and Sanskrit Mahabharata, and is closer to the former.
Claim 3: The Osiris story can be the origin for the Cult story and Sanskrit Mahabharata.

Apart from the Cult story we at times refer to other South Indian traditions which provide some additional supportive evidences for our claims.

One natural question that arises out of the above claims is how the story might have propagated from Egypt to India. We briefly discuss an anthropological evidence for this in connection with the Asura tribes of India, who are suspected to have Egyptian links.

LAYOUT OF THIS PAPER:

The prerequisites for this paper would be the three stories which we compare: Sanskrit Mahabharata (SM), the Cult story (CS) and the Egyptian story of Osiris (ES). They are provided in the required detail in Section 2. In Section 3, we prove Claim 1. In Sections 4 and 5, we prove Claims 2 and 3. In Section 6, we briefly discuss Asuras’ migration to India.

SECTION 2: PREREQUISITES

2(A) SANSKRIT MAHABHARATA:

The core story of Mahabharata begins with the birth of Pandavas and Kauravas. Pandavas, five in number were considered to be the sons of King Pandu, though they were born through divine intervention of Gods with the wives of Pandu. The first three Pandavas were the sons of Kunti, the first queen of Pandu. The other two Pandavas were the sons of Madri, the second queen.

Yudhistira, the eldest of Pandavas, was born to god Yama and Kunti. Yama is the lord of death and netherworld and the lord of righteousness. Both Yudhistira and Yama were given the epithet Dharmaraja since they upheld justice, the former on earth and the latter in the netherworld. Second son of Kunti was Bhima born to the wind god Vayu. Kunti’s third son was Arjuna born to god Indra. Nakula and Sahadeva were the twin sons of queen Madri through the pair of gods called Ashwins.

Kauravas, the cousins of Pandavas were one hundred in number. Kauravas were the children of queen Gandhari and the blind king Dhritarastra, the elder brother of Pandu. The eldest of Kauravas was Duryodhana who led his brothers.

Kunti also had one son before her marriage to Pandu called Karna through the Sun god. She abandoned him soon after birth. Karna joined Duryodhana and fought against Pandavas till his death.

Since Dhritarastra was blind, Pandu ruled the kingdom. Kauravas hated Pandavas as they feared that Pandavas would inherit the kingdom from their father Pandu. On a number of occasions, Kauravas tried to trouble and even kill Pandavas, but only in vain. One such instance was when Duryodhana tied Bhima with ropes and threw him into a river with an intention to kill him. Bhima entered the world of serpents which is considered to be the netherworld in Hindu mythology. Bhima returned unhurt.6 On another occasion, Duryodhana made arrangements for Pandavas to attend a festival in honor of Lord Shiva at Varanavata and stay in an elaborately decorated palace made of lac; then he set the palace on fire.7 However, Pandavas escaped unhurt and went to Drupada’s kingdom.

Draupadi was the princess of Drupada kingdom; she was born of the fire god. She was dark complexioned and known for her extraordinary beauty. Arjuna won her in an archery contest and married her. As advised by Kunti, the other Pandavas also married Draupadi. Duryodhana and Karna, who lost in this contest, became more jealous of Pandavas.

Pandavas returned to their kingdom after their marriage. The kingdom was split between Pandavas and Kauravas. Yudhistira was crowned for the portion that Pandavas received; he conquered the entire world and commemorated this with a Rajasuya sacrifice.8

In the final and the most precarious trick, Duryodhana invited Yudhistira for a game of dice. Duryodhana defeated Yudhistira by charms with the help of his maternal uncle Shakuni. Yudhistira lost his kingdom, brothers and wife as stake in the game. Dusshasana, being misguided by his elder brother Duryodhana disrobed and humiliated Draupadi in the court. As per the contract of the game, Pandavas along with Draupadi had to spend twelve years in jungles and another year incognito. The insulted Draupadi untied her hair and took an oath of not tying it back till Duryodhana was killed.

While Pandavas were in exile Arjuna went for penance and procured a deadly weapon, Pashupathastra from Lord Shiva. The story of procuring this weapon is of significance: While Arjuna was in penance, Lord Shiva played a trick. Shiva came in the guise of a hunter chasing a boar that disturbed Arjuna’s penance. Both Shiva and Arjuna shot arrows simultaneously at the boar and got into a dispute over who shot it first. Shiva mangled Arjuna into a ball of flesh. Finally Shiva revealed his identity and rewarded Arjuna with the weapon Pashupathastra. Arjuna’s penance almost completely spans the twelve-year stay of Pandavas in the forest.9 Arjuna visited his father Indra’s abode at the end of his penance, where he was offered half the throne.

After completing twelve years of forest stay, Pandavas along with Draupadi stayed incognito, in the palace of king Virata. Before they entered Virata’s kingdom, they hid their weapons on a Banni/Sami tree and concealed it with a corpse. Draupadi before entering Virata’s kingdom put on black and dirty clothes, wandered hither and thither in seeming affliction. Virata’s queen took Draupadi into her palace. Here, Draupadi combed and braided the hair of women of the palace that involved pounding fragrant materials to make unguents and tying garlands.10 Bhima became a cook in the royal kitchen. Arjuna became a eunuch (in order to fulfill an earlier curse) and taught dance to Virata’s daughter in the guise of a woman. Yudhistira assisted the king as a Brahmin by name Kanka. One significant event during this incognito stay was Kichaka, the brother of Virata’s wife Sudeshna, desired Draupadi, and Bhima killed him.

At the end of incognito stay, Pandavas recovered the weapons they had hidden and started preparing for the war. A great eighteen-day long war followed, in which Lord Krishna, the greatest of the Hindu gods, drove the chariot of Arjuna. The flag on the chariot of Arjuna had the image of the Hindu monkey god Hanuman. All the Kauravas including Duryodhana were killed in the war. Pandavas finally won the war and Yudhistira was crowned.

Yudhistira was succeeded by Parikshit, the grandson of Arjuna. Parikshit died of a snake bite due to a curse. Janamejaya, the son of Parikshit avenged his father’s death, by performing a sacrifice in which all snakes were invoked into a fire altar. This marks the end of the story.

2(B) DRAUPADI CULT STORY (CULT STORY):

Cult story is the underlying Mahabharata story in a sequence of dramas performed by the followers of Draupadi cult during the festival of goddess Draupadi. The order of events in the Cult story roughly follows that in the Sanskrit Mahabharata with some additional characters and events. We discuss the Cult story under the following headings, where it deviates from the Sanskrit Mahabharata.

Centrality of Draupadi:
Draupadi is the supreme goddess and occupies the central position in the Cult story. This cult is in fact associated with her. She is also viewed as a form of goddess Kali. She is born from fire.11

Arjuna’s penance:
Arjuna’s penance does not look very significant in the Sanskrit Mahabharata; one can dispense it without any loss in continuity. On the contrary, he does a serious penance on a penance tree in the Cult story. His penance and the penance tree are extremely sacred for the cult followers; there are important rituals associated with them. Garuda, the Hindu god depicted as a Brahmany kite circles above Arjuna as he is in penance.12

Researchers are under the opinion that Arjuna’s penance also has a connotation of his premature death as discussed by Hiltebeitel.13, 14 In Melacceri where annual Draupadi festival is celebrated, a baby in a cloth cradle is hung from the rung of the penance tree, which is suspected by Hiltebeitel to symbolize death and rebirth of Arjuna15 (more details in Section 3.6).

The episode of boar hunting:
Duryodhana, with an intention to disturb Arjuna’s penance, sent a boar, which tried to uproot the penance tree. Also Duryodhana sent Shiva and Parvathi who chased the boar, and caused commotion disturbing Arjuna’s penance. Both Arjuna and Shiva shot arrows at the boar simultaneously, and then fought for it as in Sanskrit Mahabharata. Finally in order to settle the dispute they fixed a challenge of who will throw the other the farthest. Shiva threw Arjuna as far as the sky,16 whereas in Sanskrit Mahabharata Shiva mangled Arjuna into a ball of flesh. After this Arjuna recovered and visited Kailasa, the abode of the dead according to the Cult story.

Draupadi as gypsy with baby Sahadeva:
Following Arjuna’s penance, Draupadi went to Duryodhana’s court in the guise of a gypsy (Kuravanci), with Sahadeva (fifth of the Pandavas) on her hip disguised as a child. In the court she demanded fresh grain for her child, though her real intention was to sow it in their forest garden.17

Sahadeva viewed as a child can also be seen in Sanskrit Mahabharata: Kunti asked Draupadi to be the surrogate mother of Sahadeva in the forest, and in the northern recension to even feed him.18

Lord Krishna’s relation to Draupadi:
In Sanskrit Mahabharata, Krishna was the savior of Draupadi and was there for her in her troubles. Krishna is addressed to as Draupadi’s brother in several of the Indian literature. In the Cult story we come across two conflicting relations: On one occasion, Krishna addresses Draupadi as his sister.19 On a different occasion, Draupadi when asked to reveal an innermost secret tells that she wanted one another man to be her great husband which is suspected to be Krishna.20 In a Telugu version of Mahabharata, when Draupadi came to know that Bhima made love to her with Krishna’s energy, she requested Krishna to marry her; he promised to marry her in a future birth as Lord Jagannath of Puri.21

Aravan’s story:
Aravan, one of the sons of Arjuna, was a great warrior. He was sacrificed prior to the war to secure victory by the Pandavas. The sacrifice involved dismantling his body into thirty-two pieces.22 God Adishesha, the snake ancestor of Aravan coiled around the remains of his body.
23 Finally, goddess Kali (another form of Draupadi) revived Aravan.24 Garuda, the Brahmany kite god, appeared in the sky going in circles at the death of Aravan.25

Following are the other significant points in relation to Aravan:
Pre-war sacrifice of Aravan is absent in Sanskrit Mahabharata.26
In the Aravan temple at Koovakkam, castrated eunuchs are the principle participants in his annual festival.27
Nine-grains are sown ritually and sacrificed in this festival to symbolize Aravan’s premature death, rebirth and immortality.28
Aravan is also called Koothandavar, meaning the god of dramas and dances.29

Fire walking:
Fire walking is an important ritual in Draupadi cult festivals. There are three important claims in connection with this:
Fire walkers are unhurt after walking on burning coals.
Fire walk is performed to achieve immortality.
During fire walk sighting of Brahmany kite is believed to occur.

There are other significant points of deviation in the Cult story that would be discussed in the relevant sections.

2(C) THE OSIRIS STORY OF EGYPT:

Osiris was the greatest king of Egypt who became their greatest deity later.30, 31 Osiris, Seth and Horus were the three sons and Isis and Nephthys were the two daughters of sky goddess Nut, born through the divine intervention of earth god Geb, though the sun god Re was the husband of Nut.32

Osiris married his sister Isis and his brother Seth married Nephthys. Osiris along with Isis developed the technique of cultivation and ended cannibalism in Egypt. He travelled to different parts of the world including India and taught agriculture. He returned to Egypt with a huge wealth that he received as gratitude from other countries. He brought law and order in his country and was loved by his subjects.33

Isis was dark complexioned, very beautiful and was considered the goddess of fire.34 Seth desired her and this was one of the main reasons for his hatred towards Osiris.

When Osiris returned to Egypt after travelling the world, Seth out of jealousy plotted against him along with seventy-two associates. He tricked him into an elaborately carved coffin and threw it into the Nile. When Isis heard this she sheared off a lock of her hair, put on mourning attire and wandered up and down disconsolately.35 She also tore her clothes, covered her hair with dust and mourned piteously.36

The wandering Isis entered the palace of Byblus (on the coast of Syria) in a humble guise, where people enquired about her distress. She braided the hair of the king’s hand-maidens and breathed perfume into their hair. The queen was impressed by this and made Isis the nurse and care-taker of her child.37

Meanwhile, the coffin of Osiris floated away out to the sea and drifted ashore on Byblus, on the coast of Syria. Here, an Erica tree shot up and enclosed the coffin in its trunk. The king of Byblus fetched the tree and made a pillar out of it.38

While at Byblus, Isis placed the royal infant over burning coals and recited a spell. As parts of his body burned, she changed into a kite and flitted over Osiris’ casket in the roof. The child was claimed to be unhurt by burning coals. Isis claimed that she did this to make the royal infant immortal.39

Isis procured the coffin and left Byblus by a boat and finally opened it to see her dead husband. Meanwhile Seth who was hunting a boar happened to see Osiris’ body. He stole the body, mangled it and dismantled it into fourteen pieces and scattered them in different places. Isis could recover all his body parts except his genitals. She, along with gods Thoth and Anubis, threaded the pieces together, wrapped Osiris with linen bandages and Isis fanned Osiris and he revived. Osiris became the lord of the netherworld after this. It is claimed that Isis conceived Horus (the younger) somewhere after the resurrection of Osiris, though there are several confusing versions.40 Isis gave birth to Horus on a papyrus bed, wrapped him in a red shawl and tied it in a magic knot called Tyet. She begged food for baby Horus disguised as a beggar-woman.41

Isis returned the Erica tree to the king of Byblus after recovering the coffin of Osiris. The tree was worshipped later by the people of Byblus.42

Isis and Horus wanted to avenge the injustice done to Osiris by Seth.43 There are several stories of encounters and contentions between Horus and Seth.44 In the final battle, the sun god Re himself came in his boat to help Horus.45 According to Egyptian mythology, the mast of the nocturnal boat of Re is the phallus of the monkey god Babi (we do not know whether this nocturnal boat is the same as the one on which Re came to assist Horus).46 In the final war, Horus killed Seth and ruled Egypt.

Isis was the goddess of fire for the Egyptians;47 later she was viewed as Aphrodite by the Greeks.48 She was considered immensely powerful and to be the greatest of all goddesses for the Egyptians.49 Isis protected her husband Osiris and son/husband Horus.50 Isis is considered as the power behind the throne.51 She is a fierce goddess.52 Isis had a cult associated with her.53 She was the goddess of sea-farers.54

Osiris was also deified in Egypt.55 He was believed to be the lord of the netherworld administering justice to the dead.56 He was worshipped as the corn god by the Egyptians later.57 He was true of speech.58 The story of Osiris has several versions and variants.

SECTION 3: SIMILARITY OF THE STORIES

We first map the three major characters in ES to the corresponding characters in Indian stories (SM and CS) namely Isis to Draupadi, Osiris to Yudhistira and Seth to Duryodhana. Following this we map the major events in ES to those in the Indian stories and show that their chronological order is mostly preserved. It may be noted that at times multiple characters/events in the Indian stories may get mapped to a single character/event in the Egyptian story.

3.1 ISIS TO DRAUPADI:
We map Isis of the Egyptian story to Draupadi of the Indian stories. Both are the greatest goddesses in their respective civilizations. Both are goddesses of fire, immensely powerful and are dark complexioned. Both are born through divine intervention. Both of them have a peculiar story associated with their hair at a very crucial point in their lives, that is at a time when they lose the protection of their husbands: Isis shears a lock of her hair when she learns of her husband’s death, while Draupadi unties her hair knot in the Indian stories following her husband staking and losing her in the dice game (thus losing charge of her). Following this both spend life in jungles, begging food for their children. Finally before they get justice, they live in disguise in a different kingdom, braiding the hair of the women in the royal house. Isis is considered as the power behind the throne, while in the Cult story Draupadi is considered as the power behind her husbands. Both are believed to be the protectors of their husbands. Both are strong women, who yearned for justice and ultimately won it. Isis is considered a virgin as is Draupadi in the Cult story though both were married and had sons. Their husbands also resemble each other as we show in 3.2.

3.2 OSIRIS TO YUDHISTIRA:
We are comparing, Osiris, the husband of Isis, with Yudhistira, the husband of Draupadi. Osiris was born through divine contact of earth god Geb with goddess Nut. However, Re, the husband of Nut accepted this child to be his own. Similarly, Yudhistira was born through divine contact of Yama, the god of the netherworld, with queen Kunti. Pandu, the husband of Kunti accepted this child to be his own.

Both Osiris and Yudhistira established law and order in their respective countries, in particular they were hailed as the custodians of law. Both were claimed to be true of speech. Osiris after death became the lord of the netherworld, where he administered justice to the dead, while Yudhistira was the son of Lord Yama, who administers justice for the dead in the netherworld in Hindu mythology. Our mapping gains more strength from the fact that Yudhistira and Yama are viewed with a certain degree of oneness in Hindu mythology and in fact they are given the same epithet Dharma. Thus, we can now extend our mapping of Osiris to the father-son pair of Yama-Yudhistira. This extension of mapping brings out another similarity of significance: Yama married his sister Yami, who was dark complexioned. This is similar to Osiris marrying his sister Isis, who was also dark complexioned. It may be noted that marriage between siblings is quite uncommon (and even shunned) in Hindu mythology and Yama-Yami is one such rare pair. Comparison of Yama-Yami to Osiris-Isis can be seen in the work of earlier authors.59, 60, 61

In due course we expand to mapping all Pandavas as one unit to Osiris. This is because the different events and characteristics of Osiris get distributed to different Pandavas, in particular to Yudhistira and Arjuna.

3.3 SETH TO DURYODHANA:
We map the opponent and cousin of Yudhistira, namely Duryodhana to Seth, the opponent and brother of Osiris. Duryodhana, along with his ninety-nine brothers constantly schemed against Yudhistira and his brothers (the Pandavas), while Seth along with his seventy-two aides killed Osiris. The causes for hatred in both the cases are quite similar: Seth felt jealous of Osiris for his fame, excellence and desired his beautiful wife Isis. Similarly Duryodhana was jealous of Yudhistira’s fame, excellence and desired his beautiful wife Draupadi.

It may be noted that the mapping is strong: the trio of Isis-Osiris-Seth is mapped to the trio of Draupadi-Yudhistira-Duryodhana with their mutual relations being preserved.

3.4 COMPARISON OF MAJOR EVENTS AND THEIR CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER:
We now compare the events in ES with those in the Indian stories. There are a total of sixteen events in each of the stories and they are so numbered that the ith event in the Egyptian story maps to the ith event in the Indian stories for each i, 1 through 16. The principle players in these events are Isis, Osiris and Seth in ES and Draupadi, Yudhistira (Pandavas) and Duryodhana (Kauravas) in the Indian stories. When we compare each of the events, the mappings of these characters are perfectly preserved, that is, the role of Isis in an Egyptian event maps to the role of Draupadi in the corresponding event in the Indian stories, and similarly for the other two characters.

3.4.1 The events in ES:
Osiris was considered the greatest king of Egypt and he was deified later.
Osiris was born through the association of a god with his mother and not her husband. However, he was considered to be the son of her husband.62
Osiris married Isis, the dark complexioned fire goddess of immense power having all the attributes discussed in detail in Section 3.1.
Osiris travelled all over the world and returned with huge wealth after he became the king.
Osiris ruled Egypt justly and his subjects were fond of him.
Seth being jealous of Osiris’ success and the latter’s beautiful wife, tricked and killed Osiris by trapping him in a coffin. The coffin later got trapped in a tree.
Isis was seduced by Seth during Osiris’ absence earlier when Osiris travelled all over the world and gathered wealth (see event 4 above).
When Isis learnt of her husband’s death, she sheared a lock of her hair, put on mourning attire and wandered up and down disconsolately in the forest before taking shelter in Byblus.
Isis stayed in the palace of Byblus in the guise of a maid. There she combed and braided the hair of the king’s hand maidens and breathed perfume into it.
Seth while hunting a boar, noticed dead Osiris in his coffin, intended to destroy his body in order to prevent his resurrection.
Seth dismantled and mangled Osiris’ body and dispelled it.
Osiris was revived by Isis with the help of gods which enabled him to have a son who would avenge injustice done to Osiris in a future war.
Osiris became the lord of the netherworld, the abode of the dead. This netherworld was sacred to the Egyptians.
Re, the greatest of the Egyptian gods, took Horus on his boat in the final war. The phallus of the monkey god Babi was the mast of Re’s nocturnal boat. However these two boats may not be the same.
Horus was born to Osiris after the latter’s death. Also Osiris was considered as the god of fertility.63
The tree in which Osiris was trapped was sacred to the people of Byblus.

3.4.2 The events in the Indian stories:
Yudhistira was considered to be the greatest king of India and he was deified later.
Pandavas were born through the association of gods with their mother and not her husband. However, they were considered to be the children of her husband.
Pandavas married Draupadi, the dark complexioned fire goddess of immense power having all the attributes discussed in detail in Section 3.1.
Pandavas won the world and returned with huge wealth after Yudhistira became the king.
Yudhistira ruled the kingdom justly and his subjects were fond of him.
Duryodhana being jealous of Pandavas’ success and the latter’s beautiful wife, tricked and defeated Pandavas in a dice game and ousted them to a forest. Arjuna entered penance. According to CS he performed his penance on a tree.
Draupadi was molested by Dusshasana following the advice of Duryodhana. This followed the defeat of Pandavas in the dice game.
Draupadi untied her hair following the above insult to her husbands. She wandered in the forest with her husbands. Before taking shelter in Virata’s kingdom she put on a black dress and wandered hither and thither in seeming affliction.
Draupadi stayed in Virata’s palace in the guise of a maid. There she combed and braided the hair of the women of the harem that involved pounding fragrant materials to make unguents.
Shiva while hunting a boar disturbed Arjuna in penance intentionally.
Shiva mangled Arjuna into a ball of flesh according to SM. He tossed Arjuna into the sky according to CS.
Arjuna recovered and was rewarded with a weapon to destroy Duryodhana in a future war, thus avenging injustice done to Pandavas.
Arjuna, during his penance, visited the abode of Lord Indra according to SM. While in his abode, Indra offered Arjuna half his throne. Whereas according to CS, Arjuna visited Kailasa, the abode of the dead. Both Kailasa and Indra’s abode are sacred to Hindus.
Lord Krishna, the greatest of the Hindu gods, was the charioteer of Arjuna in the final war. The monkey god Hanuman was on the flag of this chariot.
Draupadi cult followers believe that Arjuna while on the penance tree confers fertility to women.
The penance tree of Arjuna is sacred to the followers of the Draupadi cult.

It may be noted that the sixteen events in the Indian story are in perfect chronological order whereas the Egyptian story is in chronological order throughout except the event 7 which should have appeared between events 3 and 4. The two lists provided above are comparable item wise as we mentioned earlier. We also mentioned above that we have preserved the mapping of the characters in these events as in Sections 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.

It may be noted that, several earlier authors have viewed Arjuna’s penance to represent his own death (see section 3.5 for more details). We extend this mapping of Arjuna’s penance to his own death further to Osiris’ death. We have the following additional mappings in relation to the events that are necessary for our parameter-wise analysis:
Osiris’ death mapping to Arjuna’s death which is equivalent to Arjuna’s penance
Erica tree in which Osiris’ coffin was trapped mapping to Arjuna’s penance tree
We also map Seth to Shiva

We now list the parameters for comparison between ES and the Indian stories. The parameter numbers correspond to the respective items in the above mentioned two lists:
Hero being considered the greatest king and deified later.
Born to mothers through gods but still considered to be children of their actual husbands.
Marriage with the dark complexioned fire goddess of immense power having all the attributes discussed in detail in Section 3.1.
Travel/Invasion of the entire world and returning with huge wealth after becoming the king.
Ruling the kingdom justly and subjects being fond of him.
There are three points under this parameter:
Opponent being jealous of hero’s success and beautiful wife
Trick to kill/oust the hero into a tree/forest
Death or penance of the hero with tree association
Seduction/molestation of heroine by the villain in the absence/defeat of the hero.
Heroine shearing/untying of her hair following death of/insult to her husband; heroine in a mourning/black dress, walking hither and thither disconsolately in jungles; all of this happening before she took shelter in a different kingdom.
Heroine entering a different kingdom in the guise of a maid, where she combed and braided the hair of women in the palace, making the hair fragrant.
Opponent hunting a boar, noticing hero in penance or being dead, and disturbing him intentionally.
Hero’s body mangled and thrown by the opponent.
Hero recovered/revived; hero awarded with a means to avenge injustice done to him by the opponent, in a future war.
There are three points under this parameter:
Hero visits the sacred abode of the dead (netherworld/Kailasa in ES/CS)
This abode being sacred to the respective people
Hero becoming the lord or occupies half the throne of that sacred abode (in ES/SM)
Greatest god assisting the hero/hero’s son on his chariot/boat in the final war; association of the respective monkey gods with the chariot/boat’s parts.
Hero while in death/penance associated with fertility and/or conferring fertility to women.
The tree associated with the hero being sacred to the respective followers.

Conclusion: The similarity of the sixteen events in (almost) chronological order forms a signature that shows the two stories are similar beyond coincidence.

3.5 ARJUNA’S PENANCE CAN MEAN HIS DEATH:
Hiltebeitel discusses several researchers who have suspected Arjuna’s penance to imply his own death.64 Following are the important observations Hiltebeitel has discussed:
Tapas pole and the scene of Arjuna’s penance evoke initiatory symbolism of death and rebirth.65
Dharma is known as Kenku-pattar or Kanka-pattar during his incognito stay at Virata’s palace. The first word Kanka means heron in Sanskrit, which has connotation of impurity and death and associations with Yama, the lord of death according to Biardeau.66
According to Hiltebeitel, the disheveled hair and the blood stained garment of Draupadi connote symbolic death of Pandavas and of her widowhood.67
According to the cult followers, a Brahmany kite should be seen circling when cult performers ritually enact Arjuna’s penance on the tree.68 Circling of a kite generally occurs around a dead body, hence implying Arjuna could be dead.

3.6 ADDITIONAL EVENTS IN SANSKRIT MAHABHARATA:
We make a passing mention of two other events in SM that have counterparts in ES, though they are not strictly needed for our proofs:
Duryodhana tied Bhima (the second Pandava) with ropes and threw him into a river, with an intention to kill him. Bhima entered the world of serpents which is considered to be netherworld and returned unharmed.69 Opponent throwing the hero into a river with an intention to kill and the latter visiting netherworld and returning unharmed resembles Osiris story.
Duryodhana tricked Pandavas to stay in an elaborately decorated lac house and set it on fire with an intention to kill them. Pandavas escaped unhurt. This somewhat resembles the elaborately carved coffin in which Osiris was trapped, since both were made with an intent to kill the hero.

Conclusions on Section 3:
We have compared the characters and the events in the Indian stories with those in the Egyptian story. The similarity of the characters and events along with the preservation of the chronological order leads us to the following claim:

CLAIM 1:
The Indian stories on one hand (SM and CS) and the Egyptian story on the other hand have similarities, which are beyond coincidence.
Thus, it is possible that their origins are associated in some way: both Indian and Egyptian stories had a common origin or one of them is the source for the other.

SECTION 4: THE CULT STORY IS BETWEEN THE EGYPTIAN STORY AND THE SANSKRIT MAHABHARATA, AND CLOSER TO THE FORMER

The details of the Cult story allow us to go further to make the following claim:

CLAIM 2: The Cult story lies in between the Egyptian story and the Sanskrit Mahabharata. Further, the Cult story is closer to the Egyptian story than the Sanskrit Mahabharata.

PROOF:
We provide a nineteen-point proof for the present claim. Each point of the proof is presented in a certain format defined as follows:
Each point is based on a particular theme that appears in all the three stories namely ES, CS and SM, though at times a particular theme may be totally absent in SM.
Each theme can be split into a set of parameters that are comparable across the three stories.
The parameters may show a gradual transition in quality between the stories, thus enabling us to conclude that CS is in between the other two stories and at times closer to ES than to SM.
Each of the nineteen points that we discuss is presented in the following format:
First we discuss the theme in each of the three stories
Then we enlist the parameters of comparison
Finally we summarize our conclusions

Following are the nineteen points:

Arjuna’s penance and death of Osiris:
ES: Osiris was dead and his coffin got encapsulated in an Erica tree. When his body was recovered from this coffin, he went to the netherworld, the abode of the dead. This Erica tree was returned to Byblus after recovering Osiris’ body; the tree was sacred to the people of Byblus; the death of Osiris was sacred for the Egyptians. Osiris was the god of fertility and gave birth to Horus posthumously.
CS: Arjuna does penance on a tree. Later he visits Kailasa, the abode of the dead. Arjuna’s penance and the tree are very sacred to followers of the Draupadi cult; there are rituals associated with them. Arjuna while on the penance tree is believed to confer fertility to women.
SM: Arjuna does penance. Later he visits the abode of Indra. His penance has no serious sanctity in SM as such.

Parameters for comparison:
Hero in the state of death/penance: hero dead in ES; whereas hero in penance in CS which is argued to symbolize his death by scholars; whereas hero in penance in SM with no connotation of death
Association of hero’s death/penance with a tree: association with tree in both ES and CS, but not in SM
Sanctity of the tree: sacred in both ES and CS, but not in SM
Sanctity of hero’s death/penance itself: sacred both in ES and CS, but not in SM
Hero’s visit to the abode of the dead: visits in both ES and CS, but not in SM
Hero’s association with conferring fertility to women when in death/penance: confers fertility both in ES and CS, but not in SM

Summary: CS is closer to SM in parameter A because Arjuna is in penance in both the stories. However there is some evidence to view his penance as death. Thus CS can be placed between ES and SM. Whereas CS is closer to ES in the other five parameters (B through F); thus bringing CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

The centrality of Isis and Draupadi:
ES: Isis was the supreme goddess for Egyptians. She is the power behind the throne and she protected her husbands, Osiris and Horus. She fought the war against Seth along with her son Horus. Also there was a cult associated with her.
CS: Draupadi is the supreme goddess for the cult followers and occupies the central position (see Pucari songs, cult dramas and cult rituals).70 She is claimed to be the strength behind the Pandavas, she fights and wins the war and protects the Pandavas.71 Also there is a cult associated with her.
SM: Draupadi is not viewed as the central person in the epic though she is the key person behind most of the significant events. There is no notion of Draupadi being either the strength behind the Pandavas or protecting them. It is Pandavas who fought the war and Draupadi did not participate in it. There is no known cult associated with her.

Parameters for comparison:
Importance of heroine: she is the supreme goddess in ES and CS but not in SM
Protection of husbands: she is protector of her husbands in ES and CS, but not in SM
Heroine’s participation in war: she participates in war in both ES and CS, but not in SM
Having a cult of her own: yes in both ES and CS and no in SM

Summary: All the four parameters bring CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Marriage between siblings: Osiris-Isis and Krishna-Draupadi
ES: Osiris married his sister Isis
CS: Draupadi is addressed by Krishna as his sister on one occasion in the Cult story and on another occasion she expresses her desire to marry Krishna (It may be noted that according to Telugu Mahabharata, he promises to marry her in his future birth).
SM: There is no marital relation or love between Krishna and Draupadi.

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine’s desire to marry her brother: married in ES; whereas desired to marry in CS; no desire at all in SM.

Summary: This parameter shows a gradual transition from ES to CS to SM, thus placing CS in the middle of ES and SM. The parameter also brings CS closer to ES than to SM.

Heroine’s child is also her husband:
ES: Isis, during her wanderings after the death of Osiris, disguised herself as a beggar-woman and begged food for her child Horus.72 Horus would be her husband later when he grew up.73
CS: After Pandavas lost in the dice game and were ousted to the forest, Arjuna was in penance, as in SM. During this time Draupadi went to the court of Duryodhana, in the guise of a Kuravanci (gypsy) carrying baby Sahadeva (Draupadi’s fifth husband) on her hip and begged food for the baby.
SM: After Pandavas lost in the dice game and were ousted to the forest, Kunti asked Draupadi to be the surrogate mother of Sahadeva (Druapadi’s fifth husband). In the northern recension of SM, Kunti also asked Draupadi to feed Sahadeva.74

Parameters for comparison:
We define a complex parameter with four parts (separated by commas) as follows: Death or penance of the hero, followed by heroine wandering in the jungle as a beggar-woman/gypsy, begging food for her younger husband, who was a small child: This is true in ES: Horus was indeed a child and married Isis later. Whereas in CS, Draupadi carried her husband Sahadeva disguised as a child on her hip, thus raising some controversy regarding Sahadeva’s age (though Draupadi carrying him as a child is a fact in the drama, how he can be so young is an issue that can be debated). Whereas in SM, Sahadeva cannot be a young child at all and Kunti’s advice to view him as a child should be more out of affection.

Summary: One sees a gradual transition of a husband being truly a child who was carried in ES to a controversial one in CS to a true adult in SM, thus placing CS in the middle of ES and SM. Also the heroine wandering as a beggar-woman/gypsy and begging food for the child brings CS closer to ES than SM.

Shaving or untying hair:
ES: Isis sheared off a lock of her hair after Osiris was tricked and killed by Seth.
CS: Draupadi untied her hair knot when Duryodhana tricked and defeated Pandavas in a dice game and humiliated her by disrobing. The word used in CS to describe her untying of hair is Kalaintu which has two meanings in Tamil language namely untying and cutting. The latter meaning of Kalaintu that is cutting off hair may be more apt if we suspect Pandavas’ death because shaving off scalp hair was a tradition among widows in some parts of India.
SM: Draupadi untied her hair knot when Duryodhana tricked and defeated Pandavas in a dice game and humiliated her by disrobing.

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine shearing off or untying hair following an insult to her husband: it is clearly shearing off in ES, whereas as it is shearing off or untying in CS (because of the dual meaning of the word Kalaintu) and clearly untying in SM

Summary: The gradual transition of heroine shearing off her hair in ES to just untying in SM with an ambiguous word Kalaintu meaning both in CS puts CS in the middle of the other two stories. Further, if we accept the death of Pandavas then CS is closer to ES than SM.

Rituals involving sowing of grains that symbolizes revival/rebirth after death:
ES: Osiris after his death was believed to be reborn through corn. Further Egyptians commemorated his death annually in several forms where rituals contained death and revival as their principal elements.75 Annual harvest was believed to be death of Osiris.76, 77
CS: Arjuna’s penance is followed by two items involving grains that symbolize death and revival, they are as follows:
Draupadi along with Krishna procures nine-grains from Duryodhana which were seeded later symbolizing death, revival and immortality.78
The annual cult festival has rituals in which the followers of the cult sow and harvest/kill nine-grains symbolic of death and revival.79
SM: Apparently there is no counterpart event of death, revival and immortality or are there the rituals associated with them.

Parameter for comparison:
Commemoration of death and revival of hero in an annual festival by seeding and harvest of crops: present in ES and CS whereas absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

A complex signature involving multiple and diverse parameters (dismantling of the hero’s body, his death and revival, sacrifice; rituals associated with him; his association with dance, music and castration):

ES: Seth stole the dead body of Osiris from Isis, cut it into pieces and dispelled them. Isis could recover all parts except his genitals. She threaded those pieces together to reconstruct his body, wrapped it with cloth bandages with the help of his ancestral god Thoth and breathed life into it. Long after this Horus, the son of Osiris won the war.

Osiris was deified by Egyptians much later. There are two more points from the Osiris story that are important in the present context, namely: rituals associated with death-resurrection, and dance. We will discuss them in the required detail as follows:
Egyptians viewed the death of Osiris followed by his resurrection as a sacrifice much later and commemorated this annually; this annual commemoration involved the following rituals80 :
An eighteen day long festival in the month of Khoiak: this festival involved the following:
sowing on a patch of land; growth of crops on this patch was viewed as an emblem of resurrection
placing next to this patch a cow goddess Shenty which had inside it, a headless human image
A new effigy of Osiris was kept in a coffin and the coffin was laid in the grave every year. The effigy of the previous year was placed on boughs of a sycamore tree. Also, according to Frazer, in certain temples, statue of Osiris was placed on branches of sycamore tree.
Harvesting in general was viewed as the death of Osiris.81
Egyptians believed Osiris was a god of dance. Kings danced before the image of Osiris as a tradition and a particular dance was attributed to Osiris.82

CS: Aravan was a great warrior and a son of Arjuna. Following the advice of Lord Krishna, Aravan was sacrificed before the war to secure victory by the Pandavas. The ritual involved dismantling his body into thirty-two pieces.83 His ancestral snake-god Adishesha coiled around his remains and Aravan was revived by goddess Kali (another form of Draupadi). Aravan was deified later. There are two more points from the Aravan story that are important in the present context, namely: rituals associated with death-resurrection, and dance. We will discuss them in the required detail as follows:

Aravan festival celebrated by the followers of the Draupadi cult involves the following:
In this annual eighteen day festival nine-grains are sown ritually on a patch of land and are sacrificed to symbolize his death, rebirth and immortality.84 The Karagam pot representing the goddess Draupadi is kept beside these nine grains sown.85
Aravan’s idol is kept on a tree to symbolize his death.86
Castrated eunuchs are the principle participants in Aravan’s annual festival.87
Aravan is also known as Koothandavar, meaning god of dance in Tamil language. However, we are not aware of his association with a dance.

Arjuna also shares some of these attributes with Aravan, and they are as follows:
It may be noted that Arjuna was a dance teacher to the daughter of king Virata while incognito; at that point of time, he was a eunuch fulfilling the curse he suffered while at Indra’s realm.
We have already discussed the debate regarding Arjuna’s penance being his death. In that case, Draupadi’s procuring of nine grains and seeding in her forest garden follows Arjuna’s death.

SM: It has no counterpart story.

Additional mapping between the stories:
We map Osiris to Aravan in addition to the earlier mapping to Pandavas. This mapping is used in the following parameters of comparison.

Parameters for comparison:
Killing of a hero before the great-war that would be viewed as sacrifice: The intention of killing Osiris was certainly not a sacrifice to secure victory in the war; however it was viewed as his sacrifice for the well being of Egypt by the later people. Whereas, Aravan was intentionally sacrificed for the sake of winning the war. Therefore, so far as one views the killing of them as sacrifice (without bothering about the intent and the time factor), Aravan and Osiris are comparable.
Dismantling hero’s body into pieces: Again the intentions are different: Seth dismantled Osiris body to prevent his resurrection, while Aravan’s body was dismantled as part of the sacrificial ritual.
Revival of the killed by the goddess with the help of his ancestral god: Osiris was revived by Isis with the help of his ancestral god Thoth, whereas Aravan was revived by Kali who is another form of Draupadi (Draupadi is mapped to Isis), with the help of his ancestral god Adishesha.
Revival process involving wrapping: wrapping with bandages for Osiris and with the coils of a snake for Aravan.
Association of castration with the killed: Association of Osiris with castration is because his genitals could not be recovered while putting his body together. Association of castration with Aravan comes from the fact that eunuchs celebrate Aravan’s marriage with Lord Krishna; the latter in female form married Aravan just before his death.
Annual festival commemorating the hero’s death:
This annual festival being eighteen day long
This annual festival having the following three rituals:
Death and resurrection of the hero commemorated by sowing and killing/harvesting of crops on a patch of land
Goddess being placed beside this patch of land on which crops are sown: We speculate that the goddess Shenty placed next to the patch can represent Isis, because Isis was a cow goddess and the headless-human inside might mean beheaded Isis (Isis was beheaded by Horus). Thus we compare this to Draupadi in the form of Karagam pot next to the grains sown in Aravan festival.
Placing the effigy/idol of the killed hero on a tree
Hero being god of dance: Osiris was considered as god of dance by Egyptians whereas the other name of Aravan, that is Koothandavar, means the god of dance in Tamil language.

Note that the two stories ES and CS could be compared on the basis of these parameters once certain details in the stories were blurred. The significance of these parameters is that, though they are many in number and cover diverse topics, they are indeed present in both the stories in connection with the respective heroes, thus constituting a signature. Of course, it is a new mapping from Osiris to Aravan. However, Arjuna whom we have mapped to Osiris also satisfies a significant number of these parameters as follows:
Arjuna was a eunuch, thus supporting the parameter of association of the hero with castration.
Arjuna’s penance/death was followed by Draupadi sowing nine grains on a patch of land commemorating death and resurrection. In fact, this sowing event is claimed to be the basis for the annual sowing of nine grains as part of Aravan festivals discussed above. Thus, the tradition of placing the Karagam pot representing Draupadi next to the patch of land may be symbolic of Draupadi herself sowing the nine grains in CS.
Arjuna was a dance teacher, thus satisfying the parameter of association of the hero with dance.
Arjuna’s death preceded the final war, if one accepts his penance to be his death.

Further each of these parameters is absent in SM.

Summary: These seven parameters bring CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Fire walking:
ES: Isis, while at the palace of Byblus, was appointed the nurse and care-taker of the royal infant. She placed the royal infant over burning coals and recited a spell. As parts of his body burned, she transformed into a kite and flitted over Osiris’ casket in the roof. The child was claimed to be unhurt by burning coals. Isis claimed that she did this to make the royal infant immortal.88
CS: Draupadi is believed to be the mother/care-taker of her followers in her cult, some of whom also perform fire walk. Fire walking is an important ritual of the annual Draupadi festival. In this ritual, people walk on burning coals with an intention to achieve immortality and seem to be unhurt after fire walk. Draupadi is believed to make the coals cool for the fire-walkers. During fire walk there should be a sighting of Brahmany kite (Garuda Darshanam) in the sky.
SM: There is no counterpart for this.

Parameters for comparison:
Goddess viewed to be the mother/care-taker of the person who comes in contact with burning coals
The act of a person coming in contact with burning coals viewed as a ritual (it involves reciting spells in ES, whereas it is a ritual as part of a festival in CS)
The person coming in contact with burning coals emerging unhurt because of the goddess’ protection
The purpose of the ritual being achieving immortality
The presence of a kite circling above during this ritual

We get the parameters for comparison after suppressing the details of the stories which are quite different. Further each of these parameters is absent in SM, whereas it is present in ES and CS.

Summary: These five parameters bring CS closer to ES than CS to SM (Speculation: The fire walk of the cult followers could be the commemoration of the Egyptian story of Isis burning the child to make him immortal).

Anubis and Shakuni:
ES: Anubis was portrayed as a jackal/jackal-headed human. He assisted Isis in reviving the dead Osiris although he was the son of the opponent Seth/Nephthys. Anubis threatened to devour the dead bodies in cemeteries. Anubis is believed to take part in assessing the goodness and deciding the fate of the deceased in the netherworld.
CS: Shakuni is reborn as a jackal. He threatened and devoured the dying Duryodhana in battlefield though he supported him earlier. Shakuni judged Duryodhana by decrying his cruelty to the Pandavas and said that a just fate had come upon him.
SM: The description of Shakuni in the Sanskrit Mahabharata is more of a cunning man who consistently supported Duryodhana and was against Pandavas. Shakuni’s Sanskrit name connects him with inauspicious carrion eating birds.

Parameters for comparison:
Portrayal as jackal: This is explicit in ES and CS, while he is just cunning in SM (cunningness is often associated with jackal in Indian folk stories)
Devouring the dead: This is clearly mentioned in ES and CS, whereas in SM the Sanskrit name just connects him with such an act
Assessing the righteousness of the dead/dying: This parameter is associated with all the dead in general in ES, whereas it is restricted to Duryodhana in CS while it is absent in SM
Shifting support from the villain to the hero of the story: This parameter is seen in ES and CS but not in SM

The four parameters show a gradual transition from ES to CS to SM.

Summary: These parameters bring CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Aphrodite:
ES: Isis was viewed to be Aphrodite by the Greeks.
CS: Sahadeva claims Draupadi has Ananku meaning a woman who afflicts or causes distress by her sexuality.89
SM: Draupadi is considered beautiful, but not with any sexual connotation.

Parameter for comparison:
Sexual connotation of the heroine: present in ES and CS; absent in SM

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Heroine siding the opponent:
ES: Isis though she disliked Seth, also had affection for him; she withdrew the weapon directed against Seth in a war.90
CS: Draupadi played dice game with Duryodhana and enjoyed it.91
SM: Draupadi clearly and consistently hated Duryodhana with no sympathy or affection for him

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine having affection for the opponent: heroine clearly expressed affection for the opponent in ES, whereas there are moments of not having hatred for the opponent (enjoyed the dice game) in CS whereas in SM there was a clear hatred.

Summary: This parameter shows a gradual transition from ES to CS to SM; also it brings CS closer to ES than to SM.

Heroine becoming a stone:
ES: Isis withdrew a harpoon directed against her opponent Seth out of affection for him (though he had killed her husband and seduced her earlier). Angered by this, Horus beheaded her, at which she became a statue of flint.92
CS: Draupadi becomes a stone to safeguard her chastity when a demon Kempirnacuran touched her.93
SM: There is no counterpart story.

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine becoming a stone when her chastity was challenged by an opponent: Again here we have to blur the details in the stories while comparing the parameter. This parameter is present in ES and CS whereas it is absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

The marriage between siblings – Kichaka-Sudeshna:
ES: Marriage between siblings is an accepted norm
CS: Kichaka claims that his sister Sudeshna will be a widow if he dies.94
SM: There is apparently no marriage between siblings in SM

Summary: Kichaka’s claim of Sudeshna becoming a widow if he dies is suggestive of marriage between siblings, which was a common practice in ancient Egypt, thus bringing CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Opponent’s strong desire for the heroine:
ES: Seth seduced Isis.95
CS: Kichaka seduced Draupadi.
SM: Kichaka desired Draupadi.

Additional mapping: We map Seth to Kichaka in this context. Kichaka along with his hundred brothers was also an opponent to Pandavas. He desired Draupadi and was killed by Bhima during their incognito stay in Virata’s palace. Kichaka just desires Draupadi in SM whereas he seduced Draupadi in CS. At a very gross level one can view Kichaka as a clone of Duryodhana. It may be noted that the strength of our claims (and their proofs) do not get enriched by this additional mapping of Seth to Kichaka. However we have included this episode for the sake of completeness.

Parameter for comparison:
Opponent seducing the heroine: present in ES and CS whereas absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Association of the heroine with earth god/goddess:
ES: Isis is the daughter of the earth god; the earth covered by Nile is Isis’ body.96
CS: Draupadi is the earth goddess.97
SM: Draupadi is not associated with earth god/goddess.

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine’s association with earth god/goddess: present in ES and CS whereas absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Ending cannibalism:
ES: Osiris and Isis ended cannibalism in Egypt by bringing agriculture.98
CS: Draupadi defeated Arakkan and brought an end to cannibalism.99
SM: There is no counterpart.

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine helping in ending of cannibalism: present in ES and CS but absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Thirst for carrion:
ES: Isis was believed to wander in search of her dead husband as a kite which was more of a scavenging bird going in search of carrion than being a bird of prey.100
CS: Each night in the eighteen day war, Draupadi as Kali devoured the bodies of the slain;101 also she used to eat corpses in crematoriums;102 she went out every night to devour the creatures of the forest;103 Draupadi and Pandavas fought the Mahabharata war just to appease Draupadi’s thirst for eating corpses according to the Telugu Mahabharata.104
SM: There is no counterpart for this in SM, though Draupadi used a comb made of Duryodhana’s bone after smearing her hair with his blood (also present in CS).

Parameter for comparison:
Heroine’s thirst for carrion: present in ES and CS whereas absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

Killing of enemies in a war being viewed as sacrifice:
ES: Egyptians viewed killing in war as sacrifice to god Osiris.105
CS: The killing of people in the Mahabharata war was viewed as a sacrifice to goddess Draupadi-Kali. Houben makes an interesting observation regarding Mahabharata: he opines that the sacrifice in Mahabharata after twelve years could be reminiscent of ancient practices of slaying kings twelve years after their reign.106
SM: There is no such concept of killing in war viewed as sacrifice related to the Mahabharata war.

Parameter for comparison:
Enemies slain in war viewed as sacrifice to a god/goddess: present in ES and CS but absent in SM.

Summary: This parameter brings CS closer to ES than CS to SM.

A winged disc being the sole warrior:
In this sub-section we compare an Egyptian myth to a collection of myths in South Indian traditions. The Egyptian myth is that of Heru-Behutet, the son of Re and of Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis. There are two myths in South Indian traditions that together map to this Egyptian myth namely: the story of Barbareeka and the myth of Sudarshana Chakra, the disc weapon of Lord Krishna which is also given a human iconographic form called Chakratthalwar.

The story of Barbareeka is similar to Aravan’s story discussed above, but has its own peculiarities. Barbareeka, the son of Bhima was sacrificed before the Mahabharata war quite similar to Aravan, the son of Arjuna. Both Barbareeka and Aravan witnessed the war from above, after their sacrifice. The story of Barbareeka has certain elements that bring it very close to a myth in ES. Now we will discuss each of these myths in required detail.

ES: The Sun god Re deputed his son Heru-Behutet in the war against Seth. Heru flew up in the form of a winged disc. From the height of heaven he witnessed the enemies and killed all of them.107 It is also claimed that Isis requested Re to give the winged disc as talisman to her son Horus. Also, both Horus and Heru-Behutet were of similar form.108 Further, the iconography of Horus includes the following:
Horus is depicted standing on two crocodiles.109
He is depicted carrying several weapons of war namely a club, mace, bow and arrows indicating his character as a destroyer.110
He typified the greatest power of the heat of the sun111 and was the effulgent god of light.112
Horus is depicted often with Bes mask that is leonine.113

Stories of South Indian traditions (SST): Barbareeka, son of Bhima, was sacrificed before the Mahabharata war and his head was placed on a hillock, which witnessed the war from above. All he saw was lord Krishna’s Sudarshana Chakra, a winged disc killing enemies in the war.114 The Sudarshana Chakra is represented in a human form called Chakratthalwar in South Indian Vaishnava tradition. This human form of Sudarshana Chakra of lord Krishna has the following attributes in South Indian traditions:
Sudarshana Chakra is associated with a crocodile in the story of Gajendra Moksha, where Vishnu used this Chakra to open the crocodile’s jaws -thus subduing the crocodile- as it had caught the leg of an elephant.115
He is depicted with several weapons of war that include, a club, mace, bow and arrows.116
He has a circlet of fire around him.117
He is always depicted with Lord Narasimha who has a lion face.118

SM: There is no counterpart for Barbareeka/Aravan in SM.119 However, Lord Krishna in his gigantic form of Vishwarupa shares some similarities:
Lord Krishna himself showed Arjuna and other warriors his gigantic form of Vishwarupa with several weapons of war including the club, mace, Sudarshana Chakra, bow and arrows.120
In this form he was effulgent.121
In this form he had several faces of which one was Lord Narasimha, which was leonine.122

A new mapping: We map the pair of Heru-Behutet and Horus to Sudarshana Chakra/Chakratthalwar in South Indian traditions and show that they are very close. However we cannot extend this mapping to Lord Krishna in SM because the mapping looks weak.

We have the following parameters for comparison:
The greatest god’s winged disc killing the enemies in the war: present in ES and SST but absent in SM.
The son of god/hero witnessing the enemies from a height: In ES, Heru-Behutet, the son of god Re, in the form of a winged disc witnessed the enemies from a height and also killed them while in SST, Barbareeka, the son of Bhima just witnessed from a height the winged disc killing enemies. There is no counterpart story in SM.
Subduing of crocodile: Horus stands on two crocodiles in ES.A crocodile is subdued in SST.
Being depicted with weapons of war: both Horus and Chakratthalwar are depicted with weapons of war in ES and SST respectively. Lord Krishna expresses himself in Vishwarupa with all war weapons in SM.
Association with Sun/heat or circlet of fire: Horus was associated with the heat of the sun and was the effulgent god of light in ES. In SST Chakratthalwar is depicted in a circlet of fire. Lord Krishna was effulgent in his Vishwarupa form in SM.
Association with lion faced god: Horus is depicted with Bes mask while Chakratthalwar is depicted with Narasimha. One of the faces of Lord Krishna being leonine in his Vishwarupa form is a weak mapping.

Summary: SST is closer to ES than SM to ES.

The final step in the proof of Claim 2:
Each of the parameters listed under the points 1 through 19, fall into one of the following three patterns:
Pattern 1: The particular parameter is similar for SM and CS but different for ES: 1A
Pattern 2: The parameter shows a gradual transition from SM to CS to ES: 3, 4, 5, 9, 11 and 19.
Pattern 3: The particular parameter is absent in SM whereas it is present in both CS and ES: all parameters other than those listed under patterns 1 and 2 fall into pattern 3.

Pattern 3 suggests that CS and ES have to be together; thus we have one of the following two orders possible:
SM-CS-ES
SM-ES-CS
Since according to Pattern 1, SM and CS should be together and according to Pattern 2, CS should be in the middle, SM-CS-ES is the only possibility. This proves the first part of Claim 2, that is CS lies between SM and ES.

Now the Pattern 3 which occurs most frequently among the points discussed above supports the second part of Claim 2 that is CS is more close to ES than SM.

SECTION 5: EGYPTIAN ORIGIN FOR INDIAN STORIES

CLAIM 3: The Osiris story can be the origin for the two Indian stories, namely the Cult story and Sanskrit Mahabharata.

PROOF:
The three stories ES, CS and SM have similarities that are strong enough to suspect a common origin for a certain portion of the stories that we hereafter refer to as the core portion. This core portion is defined as that portion of the story that is shown to have similarities in characters and events under Sections 3.1 through 3.4. We will show that this core portion originated in the Egyptian story and was carried to the Indian stories. We will show this by eliminating the other possibilities. First, we will show that the Indian stories could not have been the source for the Egyptian story for the following reasons:

The Egyptian story is much simpler than the Indian stories: SM is a more mature story with intricate plots and dialogues; the political and literary complexity of SM is far above that of ES. ES is a simple, natural and human story with straightforward emotions coming out of natural instincts. Therefore if SM were the origin of ES, it raises the following objections:
Why did Egyptians copy a complicated story and deliberately make it simple?
If one argues that SM was also naive at the time Egyptians copied it from India, then why didn’t the Egyptians update the story as SM evolved into its present form? This question arises because of the following reasons:
There were enough trade relations between the two countries, thus Egyptians would not have missed the updates in SM.
As the story was sacred to the Egyptians they would not have lost interest in updating it.
Since Egyptians revered their simple Osiris story until the end of their civilization, it is more likely that it was their own sacred scripture and hence remained largely unaltered. It may be noted that though the Osiris story did evolve over centuries in Egypt, its final form was still simple compared to the complexity of SM.
Finally one cannot hypothesize that Egyptians were naive in their literary ability, and thus could not copy it properly in the early stages or update their story later when SM evolved. This is because they have shown exceptional performance in architecture, art and literature.

The Value system: Consider for example sibling marriage. Sibling marriage was a common and respected practice in Egypt while it is shunned in SM. CS has some allusions to sibling marriage though it doesn’t command the respect it enjoys in ES (the case of Sudeshna-Kichaka, Krishna-Draupadi discussed in Section 4). Thus neither CS nor SM can be the source for ES so far as the portions of the story that involve sibling marriage. Since the core portion itself involves sibling marriage in ES, it is not possible that Egyptians copied the story of Pandavas and introduced sibling marriage into it. On the contrary it looks natural for Indians to copy that story and replace sibling marriage by non-sibling marriages. That is, it is unlikely that a partially respected or a disrespected practice in India is copied by Egyptians and respected in Egypt. On the contrary a more natural social order would be to disrespect or discontinue a practice that is respected by someone.

One to many mapping: As we have discussed in our earlier Sections some of the Egyptian characters/events have at times more than one counterpart characters/events in the Indian stories. This suggests that these characters/events should have had Egyptian origin rather than Indian because, it is unlikely that Egyptians while copying the story from Indians would have merged several stories into one.

Written document: Egyptian hieroglyphic writings should have preceded the Indian documentation by writing in any form by hundreds of years. Contrary to the claim, let us suppose that Egyptians copied the core portion of the Indian story. Then we have the following objections: it is not clear why Indians did not learn script from the Egyptians and document their own story at a point of time when Egyptians documented their copied version. Copying a story that would become sacred to a people for millennia is a cultural change and hence requires a substantial amount of interaction. Thus if Egyptians copied their sacred Osiris story from India it should have involved a sufficiently long interaction. Therefore it is unlikely that Indians did not learn (from Egyptians) documenting their own story of Mahabharata had they passed the story on to Egyptians. Therefore it is unlikely that Egyptians copied the core portion of the story from India.

Finally we make an additional claim as follows:

CLAIM 4: CS can be one of the sources of SM.

PROOF:
We have shown in Claim 3 that the core portion passed from ES to the two Indian stories namely CS and SM. Now we have the following three possibilities:
Both SM and CS independently developed from ES
SM is the source for CS
CS is at the least a partial source for SM
The third option, that is CS is at the least a partial source for SM, is supported by the following:
The Cult story stands in between ES and SM according to Claim 2: this was shown by the gradual transition of a set of parameters in Section 4.
The value system of CS is different from SM: Consider the practice of Sibling marriage again: it is disrespected in SM, whereas it is reasonably valid in CS (though not as much respected as in ES). Now an argument similar to that discussed in the proof of Claim 3 regarding sibling marriage will support CS to be the likely origin for SM than the other way. This view is also proposed by several earlier authors as indicated by the following excerpts cited in the works of Hiltebeitel:
“Folk epics have a different value system and hence cannot be regarded as versions of classical mythology” according to Kothari.123
“Tamil Mahabharata re-enplotments in regional epics of Elder Brother’s story and Draupadi cult Mahabharata (Cult story) introduce brother-sister relations that are absent in the Classical epics and intensify mother-son relationships.”124
“Also the regional epics give importance to sister’s husband and wife’s brother; and Aravan has multiple mothers who weep for him at his death.”125

Several earlier authors too have suspected either regional/folk epic origins for SM or more generally the independence of regional/folk versions from SM, as can be seen from the following excerpts in the works of Hiltebeitel:
Stuart Blackburn and Joyce Flueckiger speak of “pathways from regional to pan-Indian epics.”126
According to Smith, Beck and Roghair, “the regional vernacular epics of India are oppositional to the forms of pan-Indian brahminical dominance conveyed through the Sanskrit epics.”127
“Some of the similarities between the oral and classical epics is attributed to Sanskritization with a desire to achieve a higher status” according to Kothari.128

SECTION 6: IMPLICATIONS OF EGYPTIAN ORIGIN FOR MAHABHARATA AND FUTURE WORK

The Egyptian origin for the Mahabharata story leads us to a natural and important question: how did the story propagate to India? In particular did some Egyptians migrate to India bringing their sacred story along with them? There is anthropological evidence of migration of people called Asuras to India by sea through Egypt. We will enumerate some of the observations pertaining to Asuras that support our hypothesis of migrants bringing the Osiris story to India, which might have contributed to the Mahabharata. Asuras are the tribal people of Chotanagpur region of Bihar, India. According to 1981 Census in India they are about eight thousand in number.129 Following are the observations regarding Asuras that are of relevance to us:
They are believed to be outsiders who migrated to India by sea routes; they absorbed the cultures of Egypt and Babylon before they came to India.130
They brought the symbols of Naga and Garuda to India.131
They have some association with Mahabharata:
Some tribes still enact the snake sacrifice of Janamejaya; there is a myth that all snakes in the Chotanagpur region died following this sacrifice.132
The Asura people do not celebrate Navarathri, on the contrary they mourn because they believe that their ancestors were defeated by Devas during that time.133

Snake and falcon were the symbols of the ancient Egyptian civilization as well. The migration through Egypt, the snake and Garuda/falcon symbols and their association with Mahabharata might provide some link to the Egyptian origin of Mahabharata. We discuss this in greater detail in our forthcoming paper. Also we will have future publications that discuss in detail the similarity between other regional stories of India and the Egyptian story of Osiris and also commonalities between several other gods of Egypt and India.

APPENDIX I: SOME IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS INCLUDING THE TIME OF MAHABHARATA (SOUTH INDIAN AND SANSKRIT VERSIONS)

South Indian versions including the Cult story:
The earliest references to drama (Kuttu) are found in Cankam poetry anthologies of 1st to 3rd century AD and in Tolkappiyam, which was composed a few centuries later.134
There is inscriptional and literary evidence of Paratam, a Tamil version of Mahabharata by Peruntevanar of Cangam period, which Shulman dates to 300 AD.135
The popular recitation of Mahabharata began during conflicts between Mahendravarma and Pulakesi II, around 620 AD.136
Pallavas carved the sculpture of Arjuna penance in Mahabalipuram in 630-688 AD.137
Evidence for rendering of Mahabharata: Copper plates of Parameshvara Varman Pallava, 670-700 AD, from Kuram village near Kanchipuram records a share of donation, to a village assembly hall for reading Bharatam.138
Tamil rendition of Mahabharata was composed by Peruntevanar during Nandivarman III Pallava (846-69 AD).139
Aravan cult is distinct from Draupadi cult and the former might have existed during Pallava period.140
Pampabharata, composed in the tenth century AD is closer to but distinct from Peruntevanar’s Bharatam.141
Arunachalam estimates the beginning of Tamil ballad traditions having Mahabharata themes at 1600 AD.142
The first dramas of the Cult story might have been composed in 17th century AD.143
The Draupadi cult dramas are noted to be similar to Kutiyattam and Kathakkali of Kerala, Veedhinatakam of Andhra and Nattukkuttu of Sri Lanka by various scholars.144

Sanskrit Mahabharata:145
Sanskrit Mahabharata dates between 500 BC and 400 AD.
Oldest records of it are from the Medieval period.
Even if the Sanskrit version had a prototype, it no longer exists.
Mahabharata is an ongoing fluid tradition.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Acknowledgement: I thank Narasimha M Krishnakumar and Anuradha M Adhyapak for their valuable support for my research work and in making this manuscript.

1 Alf Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, Mythologies: From Ginger to Kurukshetra, (New Dehi: MLBD, 1991).
2 Alf Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, On Hindu Ritual and the Goddess, (Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1991).
3 Alf Hiltebeitel, Rethinking India’s Oral and Classical Epics: Draupadi among Rajputs, Muslims and Dalits, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).
4 Alf Hiltebeitel, Rethinking the Mahabharata: A reader’s guide to the Education of the Dharma King, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001).
5 Ibid., 165.
6 Shanta R. Rao, The Mahabharata, (New Delhi: Orient Longman Pvt Ltd, 1985), 26.
7 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 195.
8 Kisari Ganguli, The Mahabharata, (New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 1998).
9 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 287.
10 Ganguli, Mahabharata, 15-16.
11 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 6 and 11.
12 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 223.
13 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 221.
14 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 221-25.
15 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 221.
16 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 285.
17 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 303.
18 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 303.
19 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 113.
20 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 288-89.
21 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 290-91.
22 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 326.
23 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 329-30.
24 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking India’s Oral and Classical Epics, 52 and 301.
25 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 223.
26 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 317-18.
27 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 324 and 329.
28 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 65-67.
29 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 319-20.
30 Richard H. Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt, (London: Thames and Hudson, 2003), 118.
31 James G. Frazer, The Golden Bough, A study in Magic and Religion, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2 (London: Macmillan and Co. London, 1914), 7.
32 Ibid.
33 Ibid., 7.
34 Ellen C. Reed, Circle of Isis: Ancient Egyptian Magick for Modern Witches, (New Jersey: New Page Books, a division of the Career Press Inc., 2002), 44.
35 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 7-8.
36 Diane Wolkstein, The first love stories, from Isis and Osiris to Tristan and Iseult, (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), 10.
37 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 8-9.
38 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 9.
39 Wolkstein, The first love stories.
40 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 8-16 and 317.
41 Wolkstein, The first love stories, 19.
42 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 9-10.
43 Wolkstein, The first love stories.
44 Yakov Rabinovich, Isle of Fire: A Tour of the Egyptian Further World Volume 1, (Invisible books, 2004), 161-233.
45 Margaret A. Murray, Ancient Egyptian legends, (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1913), 60.
46 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 196.
47 Reed, Circle of Isis, 44.
48 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 149.
49 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 146.
50 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2.
51 Thomas M. Dousa, “Imagining Isis: on some continuities and discontinuities in the image of Isis in Greek Isis hymns and Demotic texts,” (Acts of the seventh International Conference of Demotic Studies, Copenhagen, 23 – 27 August 1999), 166.
52 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295449/Isis.
53 Zachary Gray, The Intrepid Wanderer’s Guide to Ancient Egyptian Goddesses, (USA: Intrepid spirit Books, 2008), 99-100.
54 Ibid., 99-100.
55 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 7.
56 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 119.
57 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 96.
58 Ibid., 16.
59 David Frawley, Gods, sages and Kings: Vedic secrets of ancient civilisation, (New Delhi: MLBD, 1993).
60 “The Collected Works of Sri Ananda Goswami: The Primal Revelation at the heart of Civilisation,” accessed September 29, 2012, http://bhaktianandascollectedworks.wordpress.com/direct-links-to-all-articles-on-the-site/.
61 accessed September 29, 2012, but not available now, http://satyavidya.com/egypt.htm.
62 Wallis Budge, The Book of Gates with the Short Form of the Book Am-Tuat, (London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co, 1905), 51-52.
63 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 118.
64 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 221-25.
65 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 221.
66 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 50.
67 Alf Hiltebeitel, “Sita Vibhusita: The jewels for her journey,” Ludwik Sternbach Commemoration Volume, Indologica Taurinensia 8-9 (1980-81): 193-200.
68 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2.
69 Rao, The Mahabharata, 26.
70 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1.
71 Ibid., 10.
72 Wolkstein, The first love stories, 19.
73 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2.
74 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 303.
75 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2, 49-95.
76 Judith Antonelli, The Image of God: A Feminist Commentary on the Torah, (Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc., 1995), 120.
77 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2.
78 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 303-309.
79 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 54-67.
80 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol. 2, 86-88, the first two of the three following items are from Frazer while the third (reference81 ) is from Mojsov.
81 Bojana Mojsov, Osiris: Death and Afterlife of a God, (USA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2005), 35.
82 Wallis Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian resurrection, (London: P.L.Warner, 1911).
83 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 326.
84 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 65-67.
85 Ibid., 64.
86 We got this information from the priest of Kovakkam, Tamil Nadu, India.
87 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 300.
88 Wolkstein, The first love stories.
89 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 312.
90 Rabinovich, Isle of Fire, 204-206.
91 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 7.
92 Rabinovich, Isle of Fire, 204-206.
93 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 289-90.
94 Ibid., 297.
95 Herman Te Velde, “The Egyptian God Seth as a Trickster,” (in proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Congress of Orientalists, Ann Arbor, Michigan August 13-19 1967): 50-51.
96 Moustafa Gadalla, Egyptian Divinities: The All who are the One, (Greensboro: Tehuti Research Foundation, 1944), 58.
97 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 264.
98 Frazer, Golden Bough, Adonis Attis Osiris, Vol.2.
99 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 83-84.
100 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 147-48.
101 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 399.
102 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 291.
103 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 2, 399.
104 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking India’s Oral and Classical Epics, 499.
105 Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian resurrection.
106 Jan E. M. Houben, Karel Rijk van Kooij, Violence Denied: Violence, Non-Violence and the Rationalization of Violence in South Asian Cultural History, (Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 1999), 78-79.
107 Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians or Studies in Egyptian Mythology, Vol.1, (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company, 1904), 477.
108 Ibid., 481.
109 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 132.
110 Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, 561-62.
111 Ibid., 561.
112 Ibid., 473.
113 Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses, 132.
114 Devdutt Pattanaik, Jaya: An illustrated Retelling of the Mahabharata, (New Delhi: Penguin Group, 2010), 286-88.
115 Goswami and Sastri, Srimad Bhagavatha Mahapurana, (Gorakhpur: Gita Press, 1997), 748.
116 Sudarshan Sahoo, “Sudarshan, The King of Wheels,” Orissa review 61 (2005): 80-82.
117 Ibid.
118 Ibid.
119 Ganguli, Mahabharata.
120 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vishwarupa, one can find many images of Vishwarupa form in google images.
121 Ganguli, Mahabharata.
122 Alexandra Geer, Animals in Stone: Indian Mammals Sculptured through Time, (Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2008), 406.
123 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking India’s Oral and Classical Epics, 19.
124 Alf Hiltebeitel, “The Primary Process of Hindu Epics,” International Journal of Hindu Studies 4 (2000): 269-88.
125 Ibid.
126 Ibid.
127 Hiltebeitel, Rethinking India’s Oral and Classical Epics, 11-12.
128 Ibid., 19.
129 Abhik Ghosh et al, “Prehistory of the Chotanagpur Region Part 4: Ethnoarchaeology, Rock Art, Iron And The Asuras,” The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology 3 (2008).
130 Ibid.
131 Banerji and Sastri, “Asura expansion by sea,” Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society 12 (1926): 334-60.
132 Banerji and Sastri, “Asura expansion in India,” Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society 12 (1926): 243-85.
133 “Asuras of today: the bloodline of Mahishasura,” accessed September 29, 2012, http://akshay-chavan.blogspot.in/2009/09/asuras-of-today-bloodline-of.html.
134 Hiltebeitel, The Cult of Draupadi, Vol. 1, 147-48.
135 Ibid.,13.
136 Ibid., 14.
137 Ibid., 13.
138 Ibid., 14.
139 Ibid., 14.
140 Ibid., 147-48.
141 Ibid., 15.
142 Ibid., 147-48.
143 Ibid., 147-48.
144 Ibid., 147-48.
145 Ibid., 15.

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Utanka and Asoka-pillar

V. Krishnakumar

The story of Utanka found in Mahabharata p.121-2 [2] has some similarity with the symbols found in the Asokan pillars.

Utanka had gone to the netherworld to obtain a pair of ear-rings for his master’s wife. In the netherworld Utanka saw the following:
(1) Two women at a loom weaving a piece of cloth with black and white threads said to represent night and day.
(2) A wheel, with twelve spokes, twenty-four divisions representing ‘as many lunar changes’, and furnished with three hundred spokes. The wheel was set in continual motion by six boys representing the seasons.
(3) A man wearing a black cloth who distinguished truth from untruth.
(4) While retuning he saw a horse of extraordinary size and a bull. The horse that Utanka saw was Agni, the god of fire and the bull was Airavata.

The Asokan pillar has the following features in common with what Utanka saw in the netherworld:
(1) The wheel on the pillar, which is called Dharma Chakra, has twenty-four spokes.
(2) A bull on one side of the Chakra and a horse on the other side of the Chakra.

The trio of Wheel/Dharma-Bull-Horse:
We can see a signature that is common to Utanka’s story and Asoka’s pillar. This signature has the following three components:
(1) Netherworld is known to be the abode of the dead with Yama being it’s Lord in Hindu mythology. Yama is associated with time and Dharma. The man whom Utanka saw was also associated with ‘distinguishing truth from untruth’, a qualifier for Yama. Thus we see a Wheel and Dharma associated with Utanka’s journey. The Chakra of Asoka is also associated with time (the twenty-four spokes) and Dharma.
(2) Utanka encountered a bull on his way; the Asoka pillar has a bull depicted next to the Chakra.
(3) Utanka also encountered a horse on his way; the Asoka pillar has a horse depicted next to the Chakra.

Thus it is possible that the trio of Wheel representing time and Dharma, with a bull and a horse constitute a signature that might have been carried from the Mahabharata time.

What might the bull and horse stand for? We have already compared Yama and Osiris, as the Lords of the netherworld in the respective civilisations of India and Egypt. Can that throw more light on these two animal symbols? Osiris is represented by bull and Seth is associated with horse. The Egyptians believed the world to be ‘a balance between order and chaos’, where Osiris represented order and Seth represented chaos [1,3]. Egyptians believed that this balance was very essential for existence [1,3]. Thus the trio of Wheel-Horse-Bull are more closely connected in more than one civilisation.
Bibliography:

[1] Richard H Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt, Thames and Hudson, London, 2003

[2] The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1999

[3] Budge, E. A. Wallis. The Gods of the Egyptians Volume 1 of 2. New York: Dover Publications, 1969 (original in 1904)

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Temples, their structure, rituals and practices

V. Krishnakumar

The concept of temple, worship and rituals are the topic of this section. The Egyptian and the South Indian temples have some similarity in their structure, mode of worship and rituals. Some of the similarities can be dismissed as “natural”, for example the concept of placing the idol of a god at the center of the temple or the presence of a tower over the sanctum, etc. However, there are other similarities that deserve serious consideration, especially in view of the similarities of gods and the epic Mahabharata discussed in our earlier articles.

Temple structure

The picture of an Egyptian temple on p.27 in [1] gives almost a feel of a South Indian temple. In this picture, one finds a row of pillars on either side of a central passageway leading to the sanctum which houses the main idol of the god. There are paintings on the roof; the side pillars have idols carved on them. Several South Indian temples have very similar structure, eg: Kudumiyanmalai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Egyptian temples according to [1], were not just built for the worship of the gods but were representations of the entire cosmos. They were the houses of gods where the gods were cared and looked after. The temple representing the cosmos is very similar to the Hindu concept of temple. The South Indian temples are called ‘Devasthana’, meaning ‘the abode of the gods’.

The Egyptian temples are built in such a fashion as to exclude the mundane life with its chaos and unrest. The outer walls of the temple were sacred, and they depicted the day to day life of the Egyptian society in the universe of chaos, see picture on the top left on p.43 in [1]. This can be seen in many of the Indian temples, where the outer walls have scenes from everyday life apart from divinities; for example: the Hoysala temples, Khajuraho temples; in particular the amorous scenes in the latter. The belief here is the inside of the temple is secluded and away from these mundane interventions. Also many of the Indian temples have secluded and isolated sanctums, which are enclosed by massive walls.

The Egyptian temples had large axial procession ways leading to their sanctum, which indicated the path of the sun [1]. A good number of Hindu temples have East-West orientation and indicate the path of the sun. The axial procession ways are exceptionally long and massive in some of the South Indian temples; for example: Thiruvidamarudur, Tamil Nadu, India.

The inner sanctum of Egyptian temples is very dark [2]. This is true with most of the ancient Indian temples.

The picture of the Egyptian god Horus (Heru) as a divine child on p.129 in [3] shows him standing at the center with animals in his hands. What is striking is the arch around him with a grotesque face at the center of the arch above his head interpreted as the mask of Bes. The arch with the grotesque face resembles the ‘Prabhavali’, the arch that is placed above the Hindu gods in almost all the temple sanctums. It may be noted that Bes has a leonine mane and origin according to [1], while the grotesque face in the ‘Prabhavali’ is leonine; we have mapped Bes to Lord Narasimha in an earlier article. 

Egyptian temples had hearing ear shrines in the outer walls, where common man could communicate with god [1]. In South Indian temples people whisper in the ears of Nandi (the bull mount of Shiva), in order to communicate with god; Nandi is placed just outside and facing the sanctum.

Images of the kings are found at the entrance or within the temple in Egypt [1]. This is the case with many of the temples built by Vijayanagara, Nayaka and Chola rulers in India.

There is an anthropomorphized pillar in front of Egyptian shrines, besides which animals and food were laid out on a table as an offering to god [4]. In South Indian temples there is a pedestal called ‘Bali peetham’, where offerings of food and animals are made to the god. This is typically found just beside a tall pillar called the Garudagambha.

The decorations of the Egyptian columns often represent a bundle of reeds tied up with a cord on the top [5]. This resembles the Darbha or grass tied to the Dwaja-stambha in the Kerala temples.

Typically the South Indian temples have the following structure: there is a pyramidal tower called Gopuram that marks the front gate and the main temple with sanctum containing the idols of the gods at variable distance from this gate with an axial procession way leading to it. At times there are more gates in different directions apart from the front gate. This may resemble the mortuary temple associated with pyramid in Egypt. The front arch of the Tanjavur Chola temple, India is trapezoidal as is the pylon, which is built in front of temples in Egypt.

Stele versus Shasana: The layout of the Egyptian stele is very similar to the Shasanas found in temples: see the picture of the Egyptian stele on p.38 in [1]. The following features are common:

  • A convex semi-circular top.
  • This convex portion has gods, divinities and humans.
  • Below these figures is the text.
  • They have some pictorial representations at the bottom.

God: Iconography and description

The image of god was said to house his spirit or represented the deity and hence was treated to be alive in Egypt [1]. The belief is quite similar in India; when the people address the image as “he” or “she” rather than “it”; for example people say “Lord is coming” when the idol is brought in a procession.

Symbols of god: The Egyptians write the names of the gods in several ways [1]. There are four hieroglyphic signs for god [1]. These symbols have somewhat comparable counterparts in India; they either represent the god or his posture, or they are divine symbols associated with him.

  1. One is a human figure in sitting posture shown from the side [1]. The posture looks quite similar to that of Lord Ayyappa and Lord Yoga Narasimha.
  2. The second hieroglyphic sign is a falcon on a perch [1]. In India we see a Garudagambha in front of the temple, at times with the image of the bird god, Garuda seated on top of the pillar; for example the Vishnu temple in Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India.
  3. The third hieroglyphic representation is a flag [1]. We have four Indian counterparts: small flags are placed on the ‘Prabhavali’ or the arch around the god. Similar flags are carried in the processions of gods. Thirdly in front of the temple a pillar called ‘Dwaja-stambha’, meaning flag post, is erected permanently. This flag post is made of metal at the top and has some features of the Egyptian Dzed pillar as well.  Some of the saints namely Sri Ramanuja carry a flag in their hands.
  4. Fourth hieroglyphic representation is a star [1]. Certain divine personalities are mapped to stars in Hindu mythology, but they may not be gods themselves.

In Egyptian the word ‘Netcher’ means god; it is used at the end of a deity’s name [1]. In South India ‘Natchiar’ is the suffix of female deities of temples while the suffix ‘Nathar’ is used for male deities in India.

According to the Egyptians [1] the skin of the gods is of gold and hence the idols are made of precious metals. Lakshmi [6] and Garuda are of gold complexion. Every South Indian temple has a metal idol of the god, made of precious metals for processional purpose. The idols of the gods in the sanctum are made of stone and covered with metal sheaths of gold or silver and their eyes and eyebrows are made of Semi-precious or precious stones. The Hindu lunar deity Chandra is made of Silver.

According to [7] the forces embodied by Seth become vehicles of gods in Egypt; also Seth is made to carry Osiris at the end of the latter’s life; Seth was represented by a boat. Many Hindu gods have animal mounts; also as part of temple rituals gods are carried on animal mounts and boat (Teppotsavam) during processions and festivals.

Practices and rituals

Several of the Egyptian practices and rituals at the temples resemble those in India especially the ones in South India; and they are as follows:

In Egypt, the images were taken out of their shrines everyday, bathed, dressed with clean clothes, decorated with jeweled ornaments, incensed and were offered food and drinks like wine, milk and water and then returned to their shrines [1]. In the South Indian temples, idols are ritually bathed, dressed, ornamented and incensed everyday and are offered food and drink like water, milk, coconut water and even wine; for example in the Kala Bhairava temple of Ujjain, where the deity is offered wine. The main stone idol of the sanctum is not carried out but a dedicated metal image is taken on a procession on a regular basis. However in one of the temples of Tamil Nadu, India, at Nachiyar Koil, a stone image of Garuda is taken on procession, while in Chidambaram, the bronze image of Nataraja is both the image of the sanctum and the processional idol.

The gods were carried to other shrines within the same complex or outside to other shrines on portable barques during festivals in Egypt [1]. This resembles the ‘Utsavas’ or processions conducted on festivals or important days of a year in the Indian temples, during which gods are carried on portable palanquins or barques to shrines within the same temple complex or to other shrines.

The picture of a Egyptian procession on p.45 in [1] shows some more points of similarity:

  • The dress of the bearers of the barque: both wear a ‘Vaeshti’, a long white cloth wrapped around the waist which extends to the ankle fastened with a strip of cloth tied to the waist
  • Both carry umbrellas above the god
  • King leads the procession way; this is quite similar to Puri Jagannath Ratha Yathra in India

In Egypt, people could approach the god only during festivals [1]. They had to see the procession of the god from a distance and most often the god would not be clearly visible to them [1]. Indian temples have processions called ‘Utsavas’, during which the god is taken out of the temple, during this common people can witness the procession from a distance and typically the god is not clearly visible to them.

The list of festivals and offerings to be made on a specific day for a particular god were written in the temples in Egypt [1]. This is a common procedure in Indian temples as well.

Before praying to Amun, devotees were expected to cleanse and purify themselves in the river, put on clean linen garments and kiss the ground in front of the temple [2]. In South Indian temples people bathe in the river or the sacred tank of the temple, wear clean garments and prostrate with their head touching the ground in front of the temple.

In Egypt god is given offerings of food, drink, flowers, trinkets, carved and painted statues and votive stele [1]. Once the gods had finished with the food, it was distributed among the people [2]. In India clothes, flowers, trinkets, food and drink are offered to the gods; food is placed before the god and once the gods have finished with it, it is distributed among the people. Cradles with Lord Krishna as a child are offered to the god for fertility.

Offerings such as foodstuffs are placed before the deities; the deities only consume the ‘ka’ of the food or its vitality. After the gods have enjoyed this, the food can be eaten by the priests and is also distributed among the common people [8]. This closely resembles the South Indian practice of ‘Amshi’, in which the ‘Amsha’ or only the essence is consumed by the gods.  Once this is done the offering is distributed first among the priests and then to everyone.

The picture in the bottom right on p.43 in [1], shows an Egyptian king offering incense; this resembles closely the practice of ‘Aarathi’ in Indian temples but done with the right arm.

Pilgrims who came to Saqqara to worship Osiris, sought advice in various issues, success in court cases, cures for diseases and knowledge of the future [2]. When the desired result occurred they would give offerings to the god as a token of thankfulness [2]. There are similar practices in Indian temples as well.

Horusstatues were purchased and donated in Egypt [2]. This is very similar to the South Indian practice of buying idols of snake or Lord Krishna and donating it to temples. These idols are placed at the base of a Banyan tree. Recall that we mapped Horus to Lord Krishna in an earlier article where several interesting points are brought into light.

  • At Buto, Horus was believed to be the son of the snake goddess Wadjet, hence we mapped him to snake.
  • We have compared the tamarisk tree in which Osiris was caught to the Banyan tree that is worshipped in India.
  • The Djed pillar believed to represent a tree, associated with Osiris buried in the tamarisk, was a symbol of resurrection.
  • Osiris was the god for fertility.

Quite similarly, banyan tree in India is the symbol of rebirth and eternal cycles of life; further banyan tree is the symbol of fertility; and it is associated with Lord Krishna and snake. Note that the seemingly diverse facts such as rebirth, fertility, snake worship and Lord Krishna will find the common thread once the story is traced back to its Egyptian origins.

Votive pieces were given to gods by kings, nobles and priests in Egypt [1]. Votive stele with texts requesting god’s favor, were also offered to the gods [1]. In Indian temples, people offer gods votive pieces, such as articles of worship or metal sheets containing the request symbolically; for example, the picture of a limb, of eyes or ears on a sheet of silver is offered to heal the disease in the respective organs.

The kings give cartouches to the god in Egypt [1]. This practice is similar to ‘Archana’ found in South Indian temples. In this practice, the names, Gotra or lineage and the birth star of a senior member of the family is told to the priest, who will worship the deity in his name. Also people who do ‘Archana’ are given a higher position or are viewed as noble in the society.

The kings donating gifts to temples were recorded in the depictions on the temple walls in Egypt [1]. The Hindu temple ‘Shasanas’ record the same.

In Egypt certain gods were believed to answer questions and predict oracles [1].

In several Indian temples there is a belief that gods answer questions and predict future.

The temple precincts were full of fortune Tellers, dream interpreters, astrologers, sooth Sayers and people who gave magical amulets [2]. Monkeys were sold, and typically cheaper ones were replaced by the expensive and rarer ones [2]. Some of the popular Indian temples are thronged by astrologers, fortune tellers and people involved in occult sciences. Duplicate or fake objects of religious interest were also sold in the Indian temples.

The festival of ‘raising of the djed’ at Denderah, Edfu, Busiris, Memphis and Philae and greatest at Abydos, all in Egypt involved the following ceremonies: the myth of Osiris and Isis was re-enacted. The re-enactment involved Seth tricking Osiris and killing him, Isis searching for him, Osiris’ mummification, funeral and ultimately his resurrection. At Abydos, the re-enactments were accompanied by hundreds of priests and priestesses playing the parts of gods and goddesses, and thirty four papyrus boats carrying gods, an image of Osiris in an elaborate chest, lamps and incense [9]. In the Draupadi Cult festivals, the penance tree of Arjuna which closely resembles the Djed (discusses in an earlier article) is raised, and the story of the cult version of the Mahabharata is enacted. We have already shown that the cult version of the Mahabharata closely resembles the Egyptian Osiris story. These enactments are accompanied by processions of gods. In these processions gods are taken in elaborately decorated palanquins with lamps and incense. Also the priests (called ‘Paratiars’) sing songs, which describe the happenings of the Mahabharata.

Priests

All the rituals in the Egyptian temples were performed by the priests [1]. In South India (unlike the North Indian temples in general), only the priests are allowed to worship and touch the god and they alone can perform the rituals as in Egypt.

Priests of Sekhmet temples were well versed in magic and medicine and performed rituals, which involved magic, which was believed to be mysterious in nature [1]. Priests of Kali temples practice magic, provide amulets for cure and are frequented by people during epidemics.

Some of the rituals were performed by the Egyptian priests in private and was a secret knowledge among priests [1]. In many of the South Indian temples there are rituals, which can be witnessed and performed by the priests alone. For example the ritual of ‘the union of Minakshi with her husband Sundaresvarar’ in the temple of Madhurai, Tamil Nadu, India; the rituals in the temple of Kuram, Tamil Nadu, India; the rituals associated with the transfer of life from the old to the new idols in Puri Jagannath temple, India.

The position of the priest was hereditary and there was a large gap between the priests and common man in Egypt [1]. Common man could not participate in the formal rituals of the temple [1]. The lay people had to place their votive offerings in outer areas of the temple [1]. They could not approach or worship the deity of the sanctum themselves, but there were colossal statues outside which they could worship personally which acted as mediators to the main deity [1]. In South India the position of priests is hereditary, he alone can personally worship the deity of the sanctum and participate in the temple rituals. Also in South Indian temples, none other than the priest can enter the sanctum; devotees can place their offerings to the god only outside the sanctum and at times quite far away. The devotees are permitted to worship only large images of gods outside the temple by themselves. Some of the common images outside the sanctum personally worshipped by common people include Dakshinamurthy, Ganesha, Nandi, Parvathi, Kala Bhairava and Shiva. Also in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India, people throw pieces of butter to two colossal statues of Shiva outside the sanctum. Similar colossal statues can be seen outside the sanctum in Avudiayar koil, near Pudukkottai, Tamilnadu, India.

Knowledge of the Duat in Egypt was very sacred, esoteric and was initiate material and “proven a million times” to be restricted to a very few [8]. The Hindu sacred texts are also esoteric and known only to priests.

The profession of the priests in Egypt is one of personal responsibility relative to the physical vitality (Ka) and social class [8]. This is similar to the Indian concept of priest, which is largely dependent on the religiousness and the caste of a person.

The Egyptian priests worshipped inside the temple, while the ancillary tasks like carrying the barque shrines were carried out by a different set of priests called the pure ones, who were not allowed to enter the sanctum [2]. In South Indian temples there are a special set of people designated to carry the cult images on barques, these people are not allowed to enter the sanctum, while those who worship inside the temple are a different set.

The priests who worship the god inside the sanctum are called ‘god’s servants’ in Egypt [2]. A similar concept of service to god exists in South Indian Vaishnavite temples called ‘Kainkaryam’.

In Egypt priests were buried in the vicinity of the king’s pyramid in a small pyramid of their own. However in India we heard that there is a practice of burying saints in the vicinity of the temple if he happens to die inside the temple premises; examples: saint Ramanuja’s mummified body in Srirangam, and Patanjali’s Samadhi in Rameshwaram, both in Tamil Nadu, India.

Practices outside temples

Amulets of Bes and Tawaret were worn in Egypt [1]. Amulets of Lord Narasimha are worn in South India; we have mapped Bes to Narasimha in an earlier article.

Common man in Egypt could worship in small shrines. Apart from this there were household deities, images of Bes and Tawaret kept in the niches [1]. Quite similarly, there are small shrines with images of gods, for common man to worship. Houses have niches with gods’ images, the common one being of Lord Ganesha. Interestingly, Tawaret was the concubine of Seth in Egypt [5, 87], we have mapped Seth to Lord Ganesha earlier; further Tawaret is represented as a pregnant woman with a huge belly and hippopotamus face.

The Egyptian god of male fertility is Min whom we have compared to Manmatha of  India earlier. The ‘Harvest festival of Min’ in Egypt [1] can thus be compared to the spring festival of Manmatha in India.

Pilgrimages were organized to sacred places like Abydos, where the head of Orisis was buried [8]. Hindu’s go on pilgrimage to sacred shrines.

Other significant observations

  1. When invaded by foreigners, Egyptians instead of changing their own culture, tried to Egyptianise them in the words of the author of [2]. We observe a similar theme of amalgamating with the new comers rather than giving up one’s own culture among Indians.
  2. In Egypt gods are believed to be ‘the ones who saw by their own light’ [3]. In Hinduism gods are called Swaprakaasha, meaning self-luminous.
  3. In Egypt great sages were believed to emit light eternally [3]. In Hinduism the great sages like Dhruva, Saptrishi, and Arundhati were viewed as stars or constellations.

Bibliography

[1] Richard H Wilkinson, The Complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt, Thames and Hudson, London, 2003

[2] Toby Wilkinson, The rise and fall of Ancient Egypt, Bloomsbury, London, 2011

[3] Muata Ashby, The African origins of Civilization, Religion, Yoga Mysticism, and Ethics Philosophy, 2nd Edition, ISBN 1-884564-50-X, 2005

[4] Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes, Life and death in ancient Egypt : scenes from private tombs in new kingdom Thebes, p. 222

[5] J. C. Loudon, The Architectural Magazine, Volume 1 (Google eBook), Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1834

[6] Architecture of Manasara, Low price publications, New Delhi, India, 1934

[7] http://henadology.wordpress.com/theology/netjeru/

[8] http://www.maat.sofiatopia.org/osiris.htm

[9] Najovits, Simson (2004). Egypt, trunk of the tree: a modern survey of an ancient land. New York: Algora Pub p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87586-256-9

Posted in Egypt, History, india, rituals, temple | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 3

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves. 

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

 Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

  Page number as in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
  129 ari he who goes up aeridavaru(K), aerindavar(T) one who has climbed up or gone up  
  129 ar to come or go up to someone or something, to ascend aer(T) to climb up, to go up, to ascend  
  129 arar to go up, to rise up, to ascend aerardhu(T) to climb up, to go up, to ascend  
  130 ari light, fiery one uri(K), aeri(T)  to burn, to scorch, to irritate  
  130 ari, arri breeze, wind hAru(K)(in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  to fly airy(E)
  130 ari, arri breeze, wind Aru(KT) to cool down by wind or breeze  
  131 arb fume, flame, a burning aerippu(T), nerappu(T) flame  
    nesu   nesara sun  
  123 an to be pretty or beautiful, beauty, beautiful pleasant, delightful, gracious, splendid nanna(mT) to be good, to be nice, to be beautiful  
  123 an a man of noble qualities, a cultured man, a good man ina(K) king  
  123 an a man of noble qualities, a cultured man, a good man Anu(T) a male, a man  
  123 an a man of noble qualities, a cultured man, a good man unmai(T) truth  
  129 ar-t rush, reed, stalk of a plant, reed for writing     reed(E)
  129 ar-t a book, a roll, register, document, a writing, a laether scroll or roll, parchment, deed raddhi(K) a rough paper, a brown paper(katthe Kagada) write(E), writ(E)
  129 ar-t a book, a roll, register, document, a writing, a laether scroll or roll, parchment, deed ruttu (K) wrapper of a book  
  130 ar-t fire, flame Arathi(KT) a fire used in worship of the gods in Hindu temples and homes  
  130 ar storehouse, treasury, magazine ara-mane palace  
  130 arit an internal organ of the body(?) rattha(T) blood  
  130 arit, arrit cabin of a boat, hall of a palace ratha(KT) chariot  
  131 Arf a serpent water-god aravu(T) snake  
  131 arsh to be amazed or stupefied Akarsha amazement  
  131 arqu an educated man, a wise man, counsellor, an expert, an adept arha(K); arhanadavanu(K) qa is same as ha capable; capable man  
  131 arq a book, roll, writing baraha(K) qa is same as ha a writing worship(E)
  147 uarh a space suitable for building Uru(KT) city, town, a place worship(E)
  147 uarh a space suitable for building vihara(K)  building  
  147 uarsh to enjoy harsha(K) joy, happiness  
  147 uarsh to enjoy vihArisu(K) to enjoy oneself [207]  
  120 am fore-arm, thigh(?) amka(K) thigh [207]  
  147 uaruti the two thighs Uru(K) thigh  
  147 uarkh to be green, to become green, to flourish ukku(K) to rise, to overflow  
  148 uakh to be green, to flourish, full of blossom, blooming, flourishing ukku(K) to rise, to overflow  
  149 uash to greet, to adore, to worship, to praise, to magnify, to wish Ashu(K) to praise  
  149 uash to greet, to adore, to worship, to praise, to magnify, to wish Asha(K), Ashae(T) to wish  
  150 uatch-t green, fresh, youthful, something green patche(T) green, fresh youth(E)
  150 uatch-t “fresh meat”,i.e uncooked meat patche(T) raw, uncooked, fresh  
  147 uah to place in position vayyei(T) to place in position  
  147 uah akh to offer up a burnt offering hAku(K) (to) put (some offering into the fire)  
  148 uah-t offerings huti(K) offferings  
  148 uahit a divine offering Ahuti(K) offering to the fire, god  
  148 uakh to seek after Akankshisu(K) to desire  
  148 uas physical and mental well being, content, serenity, sound, well husharu(KT) physical and mental well being, sound, well  
  149 uasam to be in a ruined state Ushu(mT)  stale  
  149 uashesh skin disease kushta(K) leprosy  
  149 uashb-t a kind of medicine oushadhi(K) medicine  
  150 uatch to thrive, prosper, flourish uchcha(K) something high, to flourish  
  150 uaths-t what is held up, above, heaven, sky uth(K) above, something high  
  150 uat way, road haadi(K), vEdhi(T) road  
  150 uatu a kind of plant used in medicine uadu(T) to blossom  
  150 uatchut green things, growing crops, plants, herbs, vegetables, young trees chedi(T) growing crops, plants, herbs, young trees  
  150 uatch-t green stone in general patchche(K), patchchai (kallu)(T) emerald  
  152 uatchh child Kocche(M) baby daughter  
  153 uati only one, sole, the only god otthu(T), otthi(T) only one male, only one female  
  153 uati only one, sole, the only god onti(K), ottha(T) alone, single, one person  
  153 ua only one, sole, solitary, alone onti(K), ottha(T) alone, single, one person  
  153 ua-t one woman, one wife otthi(T) only one female  
  153 ua en ua one to one, i.e., one to another onnu(T) one one(K)
  153 ua en ua one to one, i.e., one to another onnE onnu or uanne uannu(T) only one  
  156 uar-t thigh Uru(KT) thigh  
  156 uan to kill, to slay Una(K), Unu(T) to hurt a body part, to dismember, to injure someone or an idol  
  151 uatch a stick, withy, twig, pillar, support, column kucchi(T) stick, twig  
  151 uatch a stick, withy, twig, pillar, support, column  kutch matte(K) a long stick used usually for dusting  
  151 uatch to violate ottchu(T) having kicked  
  151 uatch to violate odachu(T) having broken  
  152 ua mark of dual masculine ava(T), avaru(K) mark of dual masculine  
  152 ua to remove, to set aside, to withdraw (from the sum), setting aside, not counting vAngu(T) to remove, to set aside, to withdraw (from the sum), setting aside  
  152 ua to remove, to set aside, to withdraw (from the sum), setting aside, not counting vaerae (panne)(T) or vaerae(ya vaiye)(T) to remove, to set aside, to keep it separate (from the others)  
  153 uan to put aside, to shift, to depart from, to transgress vAngu(T) to put aside, to remove, to keep something away  
  153 uanf(?) to turn into worms, become maggoty hunnu(K) puss formation, to become maggoty  
  153 uanf(?) to turn into worms, become maggoty vrna(K) puss formation, to become maggoty, the wound becoming unmanageable  
  153 ua a servant of thine Aya(KT) a servant  
  153 uau a man, a person, anyone avanu(K), avu, ava(T) a man, a person, anyone  
  153 ua one, single, only one ondhu(K), onnu(T) one, single  
  153 ua with a common cry, one cried to the other O(gUdu)(K), O(pOdu)(T) to call  
  153 ua with a common cry, one cried to the other O-gUdisu(K) to sing along, to join one;s voice in calling out or shouting  
  154 ua her ua one on the top of the other uaber mele uabru(K), uther mele uatha(T) one person on the top of the other one over (the) other or one over one
  154 ua her ua one on the top of the other heru(KT) one on the top of the other, to load things on someone or something  
  153 ua-t children haida(K) boy  
  155 uab to pour out a cleansing liquid, to pour out libations abhishekha(K), abhisekhu(T) to pour out a cleansing liquid, to pour out libations  
  156 uar to come forth (of a child from the womb) heru(K), peru(T) to come forth (of a child from the womb)  
  156 uaru flight(?) hAru(K), paaru(T) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  to fly  
  156 uar-t a piece of ground, the quarter of a town     earth(E)
  157 uari to flow over or away hari(K) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  to flow  
  157 uaskhi something woven (a needle is shown in the heiroglyphs) Ushi(mT), Usi(T) needle  
  158 uba Peasant 176, servant, butler, workman, artisan upa(K) subservient, subordinate  
  158 uba rau howsoever many there may be, whatsoever Adhare(K) however  
  160 ubt to burn thaptha(K) to burn  
  161 upit the New Year festival, festival, rejoicing puthu (Andu)(T) new year festival  
  161 up-t renp-t the opening of the year, i.e, the New Year puthu (Andu)(T) new year festival  
  161 up-t renp-t the opening of the year, i.e, the New Year puthu aranbam(T) a new beginning  
  158 uba to open, to open up a country, to penetrate, to make a way into a foreign land, hence to raid, to invade, to enter     open(E)
  160 up joy, gladness     (to be) up(E)
  162 Upast Tuat I, a light-god upAsitha(K) someone being worshipped  
  162 Up-uatu Tuat I, Denderah 2, 10: (1) a singing god; (2) one of the 36 Dekans pAdu(T) to sing  
  157 uin window yannal(T)[207] window window(E)
  158 ubait servant, hand-maiden bhatta, bamtta, bhrutya, pEde (K) [208] servant  
  158 uba ab to open the heart, i.e, to confide, to speak freely bada-bada(K), vada-vada(T) to speak excessively and quickly, to speak freely and without any hesitation  
  158 uba aui to open the arms in greeting appu(K) to hug  
  159 uben to overflow, to be abundant     abundant(E)
  159 uben, uben-t wound, stripe, blow, sore abu(mT) wound  
Posted in Egypt, india, Kannada, language, Tamil | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 4

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves. 

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

 Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

  Page number as in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
  159 uben, uben-t wound, stripe, blow, sore punu(T) wound  
  163 upsh to give light, to illumine, to shine, to flood with light, star, luminary usha(KT) dawn  
  163 upsh sleep, dream nisha(KT) night night(E)
  163 ufa lung uf(KT) a word used for blowing air or to let out air  
  164 umt a dense mass of people mande(K), mandali(K) group of animals, group of people  
  164 un ye, you, they, them, their un(T) your  
  164 un ye, you, they, them, their nEnu(K), nE(T) you  
  164 un ye, you, they, them, their ung(T) their, your  
  164 un we, us nAvu(K) we  
  164 un we, us nanna (K), an(T) mine  
  164 umt-t phallus umme(K) phallus  
  164 umt girdle, belt sonta(K), mudhu(T) waist  
  164 umt girdle, belt madhya(KT) the middle portion middle(E)
  164 umt to be thick, thickness, thick, denseness, padded (of cloth), studded (of a door) mandha(K) thick  
  164 un, unn as an auxiliary verb; she said to him annu(K), ann(T) to say, tell  
  164 unun-t something that is antha(K), antu(T) like that, something like that  
  164 unn-t things which are, things which exist, what is, goods, stuff, property antha(K), antu(T) things/people that are, things/people that exist, what is, goods, stuff, property, people  
  164 unnu a living man, a human being, women, human beings, people antha(K), annu(T) things/people that are, things/people that exist, what is, goods, stuff, property, people  
  164 un, unn to be, to exist, to become, being, existence, those who are an(T) the existence of someone or something is indicated by the word “an”  
  165 unnu child, infant unni(T) child  
  165 Unun-t the name of a serpent on the royal crown anantha (KT) the name of the serpent on which Lord Ranganatha sleeps, the cosmic serpent  
    unnu men and women An(T) and Pen(T) man and woman man, woman(E)
  163 Upu filth gabbu(K) dirty, filthy, bad  
  164 un maat very truth, the absolute truth, indeed, most assuredly unmai(T) absolute truth and honesty, quality  
  164 un maat very truth, the absolute truth, indeed, most assuredly unmaiyil(T) indeed, surely, truly, most assuredly  
  165 un-t a part of the body anga(KT) a part of the body  
  165 un to do wrong, to commit a sin or a fault, defect, error, fault, mistake, offense, defective, light or worthless hina(K)(in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people)  something being bad or loathsome, offense  
  165 un to do wrong, to commit a sin or a fault, defect, error, fault, mistake, offense, defective, light or worthless unnu(T) not correct, not right  
  166 un to reject, to turn back, to set aside unnu(T) to reject, to turn back, to say this is not the one  
  165 unnu a man of means hana (K) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people),  pana(T) money  
  165 unnu a man of means sampanna(K)( the prefix sam is added to enrich the meaning of the word) a rich man  
  165 unnu a man of means chelvam unnu(T) rich  
  163 Upsit a fire-goddess of the first Cataract apsara (K) divine goddess  
  170 Unth a god antha(K), anthimam (T)  destination, the end  
  170 Unth a god Andi (T); andar(T) Shaiva saint; god  
  165 Unnti the name of a god, the god of existence untu(K), undu(T) (something) exists  
  165 Unnti the name of a god, the god of existence Andi(T); andar(T) Shaiva saint; god  
  167 Unti a light- god, and the god of an hour Andi(T); andar(T) Shaiva saint; god  
  165 Unta a light-god undha(K) a respectable person  
  165 un-t a part of the body undhi(T) abdomen  
  166 un, unn to run, to run away from, to move undha(T) to depart, to push out  
  166 un, unn to leap up, to rise up kuni(K) to jump or leap up  
  166 un, unn to leap up, to rise up aeni(KT) ladder  
  166 un, unn to open a mare (i.e to stab her) una(K), Unu(T) to wound or inflict an injury to someone or something  
  166 una-t journey, course undha(T) to depart, to push out  
  164 un, unn to be, to exist, to become, being, existence, those who are unmai(T) state of existing  
  166 un her to show oneself, to make oneself public, publicity, manifest, known to everyone unar(T) to know, to consider, to feel  
  166 un her to show oneself, to make oneself public, publicity, manifest, known to everyone unarvu(T) clarity of mind, soul  
  166 un her mirror unarvu(T) clarity of mind, soul  
  166 un to eat, to feed upon unnu(K); un(T) to eat; food  
  166 Unn-uiti a sacrificial priest unnathi (K) to attain a high or supreme or sacred position, to be exalted   
  167 unu-t hour, time Andu(T) year, age  
  167 Unti a light- god, and the god of an hour Andavan (T) god  
  167 unb plant, bush, shrub, undergrowth, flower An palai(T) male palmyra with no flowers  
  168 unp-t waste, ruin, destruction Apatthu(KT) destruction  
  168 unp-t waste, ruin, destruction nipaata(K) destruction  
    Unut goddess andari(T) goddess  
  168 unema to eat unisu(K), unavu(T) food  
  168 unema to eat un(KT) to eat  
  168 unem-t food amudhu(mT) elixir, food  
  169 unkh to put on garments, to dress, to array oneself, to gird oneself alankara(K) to deck up, to ornament  
  169 unkh to put on garments, to dress, to array oneself, to gird oneself ani(T) to dress  
  170 ur great man, great god, prince, chief, noble, eldest son, senior hiriya(K) elderly person, senior, head of a family or village  
  170 ur-t great thing, great, eldest nurita(K) expert  
  170 untu evil hap, calamity andha(KT) darkness – the word has an evil association  
  44 ami-at someone at the supreme moment of some emotion amaidi(T) calmness, humility, greatness  
  44 ami-ab one who is in the heart, darling, trusted one anbu(T) love, attachment, devotion amiable(E)
  44 ami-ast-a the title of a priest anchita(K) worshipped  
  44 ami-uta between, among(?) antara(K) between, inside  
  44 ami-t between, among(?)     amidst(E)
  49 am-ti graciousness amita(KT) unlimited  
  40 abhu to sprinkle, to moisten ap(K) water  
  40 abes to make to rise, to make to advance aavesha(K) onset, the coming on of, invoking of, posession, possesion of god  
  40 abes a kind of cap, headress vesha(K), veshu(T) dress up, deck up, to put on a mask or a costume  
  42 app-t pill, pellet, round cake papad(KT) a round cake or pellet  
  43 apt cup, pot battalu(K), vattalu(T) cup, bowl pot(E)
  43 apt cup, pot pathi(K) pit, a hollow pit(E)
  43 apt cup, pot pathre(K), patthiram(T) a vessel  
  56 an shall I send?, where is he today?, do you know?, shall then?, is it not?, who? aenu(K), anna(T) what?  
  56 an a mark of emphasis, an indication of a subject of a sentence anna(T) a mark of empphasis, is it not?  
  56 an a mark of emphasis, an indication of a subject of a sentence ana(T) an indication of a subject of a sentence  
  56 ann an interjection anna(T) an interjection  
  56 ani(?) to bring, to convey, bringing anmu or anpu(T) approach  
  56 an(?) to produce een(K) to deliver a child  
  56 anu porter, carrier, bringer een(T) to deliver a child  
Posted in Egypt, india, Kannada, language, Tamil | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 2

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves.

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

Page number as in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
10 asta to tremble asi(K) to tremble
10 ash, asher evening astha(K) (sun)set
10 ast ground, earth sitha(K) earth
10 ast clay, earth, chalk(?), potters clay sitha(K) earth
11 aku-t boil, blains, sores, pustules, any inflamed swelling kutthu(T) calamity
11 aku-t boil, blains, sores, pustules, any inflamed swelling kutthu(T) (a part of the body) pierced
11 aqa steps, height, a high place akhada(K) stadium, gallery
11 aqa steps, height, a high place Akasha(K) sky
11 aqem to be sad gumm(T) to be sad
12 agg-t a plant, a shrub gida(K) a plant, a shrub, a bush
12 akraut wagons gAdi(K) any vehicle, a cart, a wagon
12 ageb knee cup(E), cap(E)
12 at, atu a happy time with the women Adu(K), Ad(T) play
12 atu injury, harm Aetu(K), adi(T) injury, harm, wounded
12 at violence, wrath hodi(K), adi(T) beat, hit, violence
12 at rebel, prisoner attahasa(KT) trouble maker, a person who freaks out
12 att destitute, poor, possessing nothing attu(K) to be thrown out, to be necked out
13 at-t bed, diwan, couch, bier matthe(T) bed
13 at-t bed, diwan, couch, bier atta attic attic
13 at standard, perch, resting place of a god or divine statue adu(T) any place or region
13 atit to nurse, nurse athithi(KT) geust
13 athput burden, load hotthu(K), adathu(T) bear a load
13 atf incense, spices, sweet unguents attharu(K) perfume
13 at-t high backed, stiff-necked att-(thaku)(T) (being) high
13 ateb land, region dibba(K), dibbu(T) mound, rising ground
13 athu air, wind kAthu(T) air, wind
13 atep to load, to be laden, master of a load Dhappa(T) fat, obese
14 atu to run, flee, to make one’e escape Odu(KT) to run
14 atch calamity adch(K) something has stricken or hit
14 atcha a bad act, wickedness, guile, fraud adcha(T) (something) hit (me), (he) hit (me)
14 atcha chip of wood, splinter adcha(T) breah into pieces
14 atchait fraud, injustice, wickedness adcchindh(T) that which has been hit
15 a he who, that which A he who, that which, that
15 aa-t old woman AtthA(T) mother, mother goddess
15 aa-t old woman atthae(K) aunt aunt(E)
15 aa-t she who embraces, nurse AtthA(T) mother, mother goddess
15 au to come ba(K), va(T) come
15 Aa-t the name given to the sections of the kingdom of Osiris , the 14 Aats Adhimam(K) Lord Shiva’s monastery (curiously Shiva has 14 Jyothirlinga temples)
15 aa-t cattle aadu(KT) goat goat(E)
15 aa-t cattle atthu(K), adhuru(T) ox
15 aa-t bounds(?), limits(?) adda(K) to keep something in the way
15 aa-t bounds(?), limits(?) atanthu(T)[207] bound
16 aa boat amram(T) boat
16 aa-ti columns, two supports Adanisu(K) support, prop up
17 aau to be old, old aayu(S), aayassu(K) age, old
18 aaut old woman avva(K), avvai(T) old woman old(E)
18 aabi left, the left side, left foot, the left eye of heaven, the moon aeda(KT) left
18 aabti  left, eastern (the symbol for this word is waves) abdhi(K) sea (the symbol indicates the meaning could be sea aswell- also Egypt has sea only on its east)
19 aabb to love, to desire, to wish appu(k) to hug, to desire, to seek
19 aabb to love, to desire, to wish anbu(T) love
19 aabi to lack, to want, to come to an end, to cease, to finish aayipo(T) to get over, finished
19 aab to burn, to flare up, to burn off, to brand abbara(K) to create a scene, to raise a loud noise
19 aabekh to pierce, to penetrate, to force a way among or into, to be permeated with, mingled peck(E)
20 aapata a baked cake chaapada(T) lunch
20 aapata a baked cake chapaathi(K), sappathi(T) an Indian bread
20 aapata a baked cake pata(KT) a lamina
20 aapata a baked cake chappate(K) a flat surface
20 aapata a baked cake appala(K) papad
20 aam, aama a kind of tree, date palm(?) aamra(K)[209] mango tree mango(E)
20 aama to be pleasant, to be benevolent, to be gracious Ama(T) yes, to answer in the affirmative
20 Aamit the gracious goddess Hathor mata(KT) goddess mother, matron
21 Aamit a goddess amari(K) goddess
21 aam-t house, tent, camp, station Hamu(mT) house home(E)
21 aam-t house, tent, camp, station matha(K) sanctuary, hermitage, monastery
21 aaru forms, transformations mAru(padu)(K), mAru(T) transform
21 aaru reeds Ar(T) sharpness
21 aaru reeds ark(T) to cut
21 aaru reeds hari(K) to tear
21 aaru reeds shara(KT) reeds
21 aar lion aar(K) roar
21 aar a kind of bird hAru(K), paaru(T) (in many cases, the first letter ‘h’ of the Kannada words is dropped in pronunciation by the native people) to fly
21 aartiar a kind of bird haartiya(K) you who flies’
21 Aarait Uraeus-goddess aravu(T) snake (typically as the suffix ‘t’ is added to denote a female in Egyptian the earlier part ‘aara’ could denote just uraeus)
22 aakhi to flourish, to burst into flower, to bloom higgu(K) to bloom, to expand, to burst out
23 Aakhu the Light-god; the Great Light i.e the sun arka(K) sun
26 aat speech(?) aadu(K) speak
26 aatha what is this? oodhu(mT) what is this?
27 aat-t ground, place, region, field, meadow aatha(T) home
27 aa, aai to wash, to bathe, to dip in water meeyu(K) to bathe
27 aatu foes, enemies aedhurei(K) enemy, opponent, foe
27 aatchn disc dashe(K) aura
27 aamiu kinsfolk amiable(people)(E)
127 ant calamity, trouble antha(K) to come to an end, destruction
127 ant destitute man anatha(K), anathe(T) orphan, destitute person
127 ansh to live, life amsha(KT) essence
126 ankh-t staff, stick, stalk onake(K) staff, stick
125 Ankhit a uraeus-goddess nAgi(KT) a female snake goddess
124 ankh “ever living”, a title of gods and kings anka(K)  a title, a name
126 ankh a god’s title anka(K)  a title, a name
126 ankh to swear an oath, to swear by the life of god, to swear by the life of pharaoh Ane, (devar)Ane, (avan)Ane to swear an oath, to swear (by the life of god), to swear (by the life of a person)
124 ankh “ever living”, a title of gods and kings anigAla(K) forever
127 ant part of a fowling net net(E)
127 ant deeds of violence nondha(K) pain, sorrow, sadness
127 ant to cut, to slay nondha(K) pain, sorrow, sadness
128 ant ground, field, soil, cultivated lands nAdu(KT) land, region, place
128 ant fat, grease, manure, unguent, fresh grease antu(KT) grease, any sticky substance, unguent
128 antch the tip of a wing anchu(K), anthu(K) the tip or edge of anything
128 antch claw, talon, nail anchu(K), anthu(K) the tip or edge of anything
128 antch light, radiance, splendour minchu(KT) shine, sparkle
Posted in Egypt, india, Kannada, language, Tamil | Leave a comment

Egyptian words in Kannada and Tamil – Part 1

V. Krishnakumar

Still editing …

While studying Egyptian words in Budge’s Egyptian Hieroglyphic dictionary [49], I found to my surprise a good number of words in Tamil and Kannada quite similar to the Egyptian. I did a little more systematic study of the Dictionary; the following table is the outcome of this study. The comparison of words is not very straight-forward. However the similarity becomes obvious once certain approximations are made. We have stated the approximations that we have made as a set of rules below. The set of rules for approximations are quite natural since we need the same set for comparing the two Dravidian languages Tamil and Kannada themselves. 

Rule 1: Egyptian hieroglyphs lack vowels [29], hence we have freedom to choose the vowels.

Rule 2: Tamil has just one symbol for all the consonants in each of the ‘Vargas’ that is,

a. ‘Ka’ stands for ‘Ka’, ‘Kha’, ‘Ga’ and ‘Gha’

b. ‘Cha’ stands for ‘Cha’, ‘Chha’, ‘Ja’ and ‘Jha’

c. ‘Ta’ stands for ‘Ta’, ‘Tta’, ‘Da’ and “Dda’

d. ‘Tha’ stands for ‘Tha’, ‘Ttha’, ‘Dha’ and ‘Ddha’

e. ‘Pa’ stands for ‘Pa’, ‘Pha’, ‘Ba’ and ‘Bha’

Apart from this, ‘Sa’, ‘Sha’ in Tamil are represented by ‘Cha’.

It may be noted that this transformation is needed for mapping words between Kannada and Tamil.

Rule 3: In Tamil certain accentuations are written linear. For example Krishna as Kirushna, Prabhakar as Pirabhakar.

Rule 4: In some of the Kannada dialects ‘h’ at the beginning of the word is silent, for example the word ‘halli’ meaning a village is pronounced as ‘alli’.

Convention:

For the Egyptian words: the case of the vowels is preserved as in [49]

For the Kannada and Tamil words: upper case indicates Deergha Svara, the lowercase Hruswa Svara.

  Page number in Budge [49] Egyptian word from Budge [49] Meaning from Budge [49] Similar sounding Kannada or Tamil words Meaning of the Kannada or Tamil word of the previous column Similar sounding English word
  533 khakhai Beak(?) of a bird Kaakai(T) Crow  
  533 khast Desert(?) Kashta (K) Difficulty  
  188 ut To tie, swathe, to wind bandages around a dead body Udu (K) To wrap around (a saree), wear  
  188 utaut Swathings, mummy bandages Uduvudu (udodu) (K) To wrap around, to wear  
  188 uti Destruction Odi(KT) To break, to destroy  
  188 Utanu the name of a god Odeya, Odeyanu(K) lord, master  
  188 utt To beget, to produce Utthu(K) Plough  
  189 uten To breach a wall, to bore through Ode(KT) To break  
  189 uten To be heavy, a weight Hottenu(K) Bore (a weight)  
  533 khakh re “Hasty of mouth”, a man who speaks without much thought Gaagu(mT) Stupid, thoughtless  
  152 uaa-t Vomiting, nausea Vaanthi(KT) Vomit  
  231 Paa-t a lake in the Tuat paathi(K) pit  
  332 met-t the middle of anything madhya(K) the middle of anything mid(E)
  332 met canal bank mettu(T), mEdu(T) mound, rising ground  
  661 sep to pass the time(?) (kAla-)kshEpa (K)  spending (time)  
    khara to speak angrily khAra(K) hot of tongue, (to speak) harsh  
  713 set to break, smash, cleave, breach a wall sidi(K) break in a spurt, explode  
  713 set-t breach, break, opening sidi(K) break in a spurt, explode  
  712 seth, sthi to light a fire sudu(K,T) to burn  
  644 sati slaughterer, executioner, gods who slay sati(K,T) the practice of woman sacrifice in India  
  644 sat something foul saththu(K) die  
  644 sat, saat to make weak, to reduce saththu(K) die  
  644 sati to prove, to show sattu(T) truth, essence, wisdom  
  233 papa to bring forth, to bear, give birth to, born of pApA(T), pApu(K) child  
  232 Paru a form of Ra pAru(T) see, vision  
  630 sether to be shaken, disturbed cheduru(K) disperse  
  631 set to sow seed chedi(K) plant  
  627 set earth, ground, soil sEta(K) fertile soil, ploughed soil  
  279 mata jaw bones (?) of a bull mAdu(T) cow  
  281 Mapu a title of honor(?) mAple, short form is mApu(T) a title of honor  
  285 m’kha to tie, to bind amuku(K) to press, to hug  
  419 Ruru(?) a god ruru(KT) a god  
  434 rek to kindle a fire, to burn rEgu(KT) to scold, heated conversation  
  434 reqeh flame, heat, fire reqe(K) a ray( of sun)  
  434 rekeh to be hot, to burn, to consume by fire irakkuh(mT) to feel hot (hot weather), heat  
  615 skhaa to cut, sword, knife sighaa(du haku) (K) to cut up someone ray(E)
  614 sekh event, incident sigu(K), shikku(T) to meet, intersect  
  400 neta to come, to advance neta(K) leader  
  400 nt-a rule, order, canon, custom, ordinance, statute, law, formula, stipulations,ordinances, ceremonies, the liturgy for the burial of the dead nEti(KT) rule, morals, code of conduct, law, custom   
  399 ntt-t cord, band, thread, fillet, ties, bandages, ligatures     net(E)
  399 ntt(?) to weave, to bind, to tie     net(verb)(E), knit(E)
  399 ntt that which is, this which antha(K), antu(T) that which is , this which  
  399 nti the thing which is, what is antha(K), antu(T) the thing which is, what is  
  398 nt who, which antha(K), antu(T) who, which  
  1 a-t field adu(T) region at(E)
  1 aati enemy (K) war  
  1 aati be strong, hostile aadisu(K), aadi(T) to trouble  
  1 aati be strong, hostile adi(T) to hit (someone or something)  
  2 aaia to extinguish, to put out a fire avi(T), Ari to extinguish, to put out a fire  
  2 aab-t calamity, ruin aApathu(KT) calamity, disaster  
  2 Aaanu the ape god Thoth aAAnu(T) male, alpha male  
  2 aas a weapon ishu(K) an arrow  
  2 au-t length, largeness uddah(K) length, long  
  3 au-tab swelling of the heart utha(KT) swelling  
  3 au-t food, offering, sepulcheral meals, supplies of all kinds authana(K) food  
  3 au-t slaughters, animals slaughtered for food vett(T) slaughter  
  3 Auit(?) a goddess of nurses and children aAtha(T) mother, mother goddess  
  3 au sorrow, pain, sadness nau(KT) pain, sorrow, sadness auch(E)
  4 ausha balsam, incense, unguent of a light yellow colour aushadhi(K) medicine, unguent  
  4 abebu to love, to wish for, to desire, to long for apaekshisu(K) to expect, to wish for, to desire,to long for  
  4 ab be thirsty ap(KTS) water  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk pAti(T) grandmother  
  4 abu-t kindly disposition aAptha-(mithra)(K) ideal, very close (friend)  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk aAptha-(mithra)(K) ideal, very close (friend)  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk appa(K) father  
  4 abut forefathers, grandparents, ancestors, kinsfolk abachi(K) mother, father(thanthi?)  
  5 abt to shut, to bolt in podu(T) to shut, to close, to bolt in, latch  
  6 afu to injure, to inflict an injury abu(T) wound  
  6 ama, ami to mix together, to compound a medicine, to rub down drugs ammi-(kallu) (T) grinding or powdering or mixing (stone) mix(E)
  6 ames, amsu rod of authority, sceptre, staff     mace(E)
  5 af offerings of birds and fish     offering(E)
  5 af-t gift, offering, present     gift, offering(E)
  6 afit flame, fire pittha(KT) heat  
  6 afri smoke, hot vapour aAvi(T) steam  
  6 afer to burn, to be hot     burn(E)(tamil transformatn)
  7 ani to remove, to put aside ani(K) to arrange  
  7 ara to go up, to embark in a boat, to bring, to be high aeru(KT) to go up, to climb up  
  7 arar high, exalted aeridavaru(K), aernavar(T) a peson who has gone up, high, exalted  
  7 arta to be safe, sure, security artha(K) something which gives surity and security, money  
  7 an-t removal antha(K) the end  
  7 arg a member of the body anga(KT) a member of the body  
  8 ahem to advance aAgama(K) advance of (water, flood, …etc)  
  8 ahtu grief atthu(K) having cried  
  8 aha-t the offering of a field aAhuti(K) an offering usually to a god  
  8 ahnu canal Anekattu(K) dam  
  8 Akh-t the first season of the year (the season of inundation when the Nile was in flood [67]) aAgatha(K) the coming of water, inundation  
  8 Akh-t the first season of the year (the season of inundation when the Nile was in flood [67]) ukhutha(K) swelling of a liquid  
  8 ahtu weak, powerless, grief aAhAdu(T) impossible  
  8 ahtu weak, powerless, grief AhAdavu incapable, weak, powerless  
    proyet the second season of the year, springing forth [67] PrAyatha(K) springing forth  
    shomu the third season of the year, deficiency[67] kshama(K), kshamu(T) famine, drought  
  8 ah-het the pit or shaft of a tomb Hhonda(K) pit, pot-hole  
  8 akhi reed, water plant akki(K) paddy  
  9 asu to make haste, to hurry to, to flow quickly, to run, to attack, to judge hurriedly, hasting with swift feet asa(K) speed  
  9 as to be light, speedy asa(K) speed  
  9 asu birds asaga(K) birds  
  9 as old(?) as(K) debilitated  
  9 as gall, gall-duct or gall-bladder, filth Kasa(K) dirt, filth, garbage ass(E)
  9 as-ti testicles     testis
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